The alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the first biochemical characteristics associated with cancer cells since most of these cells increase glucose consumption and glycolytic rates even in the presence of oxygen, which has been called “aerobic glycolysis” or the Warburg effect. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with approximately 5% of all human cancers worldwide, principally to cervical cancer. E6 and E7 are the main viral oncoproteins which are required to preserve the malignant phenotype. These viral proteins regulate the cell cycle through their interaction with tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRB, respectively. Together with the viral proteins E5 and E2, E6 and E7 can favor the Warburg effect and contribute to radio- and chemoresistance through the increase in the activity of glycolytic enzymes, as well as the inhibition of the Krebs cycle and the respiratory chain. These processes lead to a fast production of ATP obtained by Warburg, which could help satisfy the high energy demands of cancer cells during proliferation. In this way HPV proteins could promote cancer hallmarks. However, it is also possible that during an early HPV infection, the Warburg effect could help in the achievement of an efficient viral replication.
Oxidative stress has been proposed as a risk factor for cervical cancer development. However, few studies have evaluated the redox state associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The aim of this work was to determine the role of the early expressed viral proteins E1, E2, E6 and E7 from HPV types 16 and 18 in the modulation of the redox state in an integral form. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), levels and activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, were analysed in epithelial cells ectopically expressing the viral proteins. Our research shows that E6 oncoproteins decreased GSH and catalase protein levels, as well as its enzymatic activity, which was associated with an increase in ROS production and DNA damage. In contrast, E7 oncoproteins increased GSH, as well as catalase protein levels and its activity, which correlated with a decrease in ROS without affecting DNA integrity. The co-expression of both E6 and E7 oncoproteins neutralized the effects that were independently observed for each of the viral proteins. Additionally, the combined expression of E1 and E2 proteins increased ROS levels with the subsequent increase in the marker for DNA damage phospho-histone 2AX (γH2AX). A decrease in GSH, as well as SOD2 levels and activity were also detected in the presence of E1 and E2, even though catalase activity increased. This study demonstrates that HPV early expressed proteins differentially modulate cellular redox state and DNA damage.
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Head and neck squamous cells carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most frequent subtype of HNC. The development of HNSCC is associated to alcohol consumption, smoking or infection by high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Although the incidence of cancers associated with alcohol and tobacco has diminished, HNSCC associated with HR-HPV has significantly increased in recent years. However, HPV-positive HNSCC responds well to treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation or chemoradiation therapy. Radiation therapy (RT) is based on ionizing radiation (IR) changing cell physiology. IR can directly interact with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), provoking DNA damage. When DNA damage is not repaired, programmed cell death (apoptosis and/or autophagy) is induced. However, cancer cells can acquire resistance to IR avoiding cell death, where reprogramming of energy metabolism has a critical role and is intimately connected with hypoxia, mitochondrial physiology, oxidative stress (OS) and autophagy. This review is focused on the reprogramming of energy metabolism in response to RT in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC, showing their differences in cellular metabolism management and the probable direction of treatments for each subtype of HNSCC.
Mitochondria are essential organelles in physiology and kidney diseases, because they produce cellular energy required to perform their function. During mitochondrial metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. ROS function as secondary messengers, inducing redox-sensitive post-translational modifications (PTM) in proteins and activating or deactivating different cell signaling pathways. However, in kidney diseases, ROS overproduction causes oxidative stress (OS), inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and altering its metabolism and dynamics. The latter processes are closely related to changes in the cell redox-sensitive signaling pathways, causing inflammation and apoptosis cell death. Although mitochondrial metabolism, ROS production, and OS have been studied in kidney diseases, the role of redox signaling pathways in mitochondria has not been addressed. This review focuses on altering the metabolism and dynamics of mitochondria through the dysregulation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways in kidney diseases.
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