Abstract-A Cell-Free Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) system comprises a very large number of distributed access points (APs) which simultaneously serve a much smaller number of users over the same time/frequency resources based on directly measured channel characteristics. The APs and users have only one antenna each. The APs acquire channel state information through time-division duplex operation and the reception of uplink pilot signals transmitted by the users. The APs perform multiplexing/de-multiplexing through conjugate beamforming on the downlink and matched filtering on the uplink. Closed-form expressions for individual user uplink and downlink throughputs lead to max-min power control algorithms. Max-min power control ensures uniformly good service throughout the area of coverage. A pilot assignment algorithm helps to mitigate the effects of pilot contamination, but power control is far more important in that regard.Cell-Free Massive MIMO has considerably improved performance with respect to a conventional small-cell scheme, whereby each user is served by a dedicated AP, in terms of both 95%-likely per-user throughput and immunity to shadow fading spatial correlation. Under uncorrelated shadow fading conditions, the cell-free scheme provides nearly 5-fold improvement in 95%-likely per-user throughput over the small-cell scheme, and 10-fold improvement when shadow fading is correlated.
Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications refers to the idea equipping cellular base stations (BSs) with a very large number of antennas, and has been shown to potentially allow for orders of magnitude improvement in spectral and energy efficiency using relatively simple (linear) processing. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art research on the topic, which has recently attracted considerable attention. We begin with an information theoretic analysis to illustrate the conjectured advantages of massive MIMO, and then we address implementation issues related to channel estimation, detection and precoding schemes. We particularly focus on the potential impact of pilot contamination caused by the use of non-orthogonal pilot sequences by users in adjacent cells. We also analyze the energy efficiency achieved by massive MIMO systems, and demonstrate how the degrees of freedom provided by massive MIMO systems enable efficient single-carrier transmission. Finally, the challenges and opportunities associated with implementing massive MIMO in future wireless communications systems are discussed.
We define and show how to construct nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes. Our approach is based on nonbinary error bases. It generalizes the relationship between selforthogonal codes over F 4 and binary quantum codes to one between selforthogonal codes over F q 2 and q-ary quantum codes for any prime power q.
Abstract-In this paper we study the performance of cellular networks when its base stations have an unlimited number of antennas. In previous work, the asymptotic behavior of the signal to interference plus nose ratio (SINR) was obtained. We revisit these results by deriving the rigorous expression for the SINR of both downlink and uplink in the scenario of infinite number of antennas.We show that the contamination of the channel estimates happens whenever a pilot sequence is received at a base station simultaneously with non-orthogonal signals coming from other users. We propose a method to avoid such simultaneous transmissions from adjacent cells, thus significantly decreasing interference. We also investigate the effects of power allocation in this interference-limited scenario, and show that it results in gains of over 15dB in the signal to interference ratio for the scenario simulated here. The combination of these two techniques results in rate gains of about 18 times in our simulations.
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