Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer that most commonly evolves from preexisting prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA). Using Next Generation RNA-sequencing and oligonucleotide arrays, we profiled 7 NEPC, 30 PCA, and 5 benign prostate tissue (BEN), and validated findings on tumors from a large cohort of patients (37 NEPC, 169 PCA, 22 BEN) using IHC and FISH. We discovered significant overexpression and gene amplification of AURKA and MYCN in 40% of NEPC and 5% of PCA, respectively, and evidence that that they cooperate to induce a neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cells. There was dramatic and enhanced sensitivity of NEPC (and MYCN overexpressing PCA) to Aurora kinase inhibitor therapy both in vitro and in vivo, with complete suppression of neuroendocrine marker expression following treatment. We propose that alterations in Aurora kinase A and N-myc are involved in the development of NEPC, and future clinical trials will help determine from the efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibitor therapy.
The stratification in three main renal cell carcinoma histologic subtypes as defined by the 1997 UICC-American Joint Committee on Cancer consensus should not be considered a major prognostic variable comparable to TNM stage, Fuhrman grade and ECOG PS.
The new nomogram is more contemporary, provides predictions that reach further in time and, compared with its alternative, which predicts at 2 and 5 years, generates 3.1% and 2.8% more accurate predictions, respectively.
Partial nephrectomy is becoming the gold standard for renal tumors less than 4 cm but this treatment is much more controversial for larger T1 tumors. This large multicenter study suggests that it is safe to expand the indications of partial nephrectomy to include patients with T1N0M0 tumors up to 7 cm. However, careful patient selection remains necessary.
We characterized inflammatory cells infiltrate in a large cohort of surgically treated BPH specimens. The role of inflammation in BPH development was highlighted by the strong correlation between histological inflammation, IPSS, and prostate volume. Prostate enlargement due to chronic inflammatory process may progressively conduce to BPH progression. Therefore, inflammation is a therapeutic target for BPH.
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