We consider optimal execution strategies for block market orders placed in a limit order book (LOB). We build on the resilience model proposed by Obizhaeva and Wang (2005) but allow for a general shape of the LOB defined via a given density function. Thus, we can allow for empirically observed LOB shapes and obtain a nonlinear price impact of market orders. We distinguish two possibilities for modeling the resilience of the LOB after a large market order: the exponential recovery of the number of limit orders, i.e., of the volume of the LOB, or the exponential recovery of the bid-ask spread. We consider both of these resilience modes and, in each case, derive explicit optimal execution strategies in discrete time. Applying our results to a block-shaped LOB, we obtain a new closed-form representation for the optimal strategy of a risk-neutral investor, which explicitly solves the recursive scheme given in Obizhaeva and Wang (2005). We also provide some evidence for the robustness of optimal strategies with respect to the choice of the shape function and the resilience-type.
We consider the linear-impact case in the continuous-time market impact model with transient price impact proposed by Gatheral. In this model, the absence of price manipulation in the sense of Huberman and Stanzl can easily be characterized by means of Bochner's theorem. This allows us to study the problem of minimizing the expected liquidation costs of an asset position under constraints on the trading times. We prove that optimal strategies can be characterized as measure-valued solutions of a generalized Fredholm integral equation of the first kind and analyze several explicit examples. We also prove theorems on the existence and nonexistence of optimal strategies. We show in particular that optimal strategies always exist and are nonalternating between buy and sell trades when price impact decays as a convex function of time. This is based on and extends a recent result by Alfonsi, Schied, and Slynko on the nonexistence of transaction-triggered price manipulation. We also prove some qualitative properties of optimal strategies and provide explicit expressions for the optimal strategy in several special cases of interest.
When estimating the risk of a P&L from historical data or Monte Carlo simulation, the robustness of the estimate is important. We argue here that Hampel's classical notion of qualitative robustness is not suitable for risk measurement and we propose and analyze a refined notion of robustness that applies to tail-dependent law-invariant convex risk measures on Orlicz spaces. This concept of robustness captures the tradeoff between robustness and sensitivity and can be quantified by an index of qualitative robustness. By means of this index, we can compare various risk measures, such as distortion risk measures, in regard to their degree of robustness. Our analysis also yields results that are of independent interest such as continuity properties and consistency of estimators for risk measures, or a Skorohod representation theorem for ψ-weak convergence.MSC classification: 62G35, 60B10, 60F05, 91B30, 28A33 JEL Classification D81
Robust utility functionals arise as numerical representations of investor preferences, when the investor is uncertain about the underlying probabilistic model and averse against both risk and model uncertainty. In this paper, we study the duality theory for the problem of maximizing the robust utility of the terminal wealth in a general incomplete market model. We also allow for very general sets of prior models. In particular, we do not assume that all prior models are equivalent to each other, which allows us to handle many economically meaningful robust utility functionals such as those defined by AVaR λ , concave distortions, or convex capacities. We also show that dropping the equivalence of prior models may lead to new effects such as the existence of arbitrage strategies under the least favorable model.
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