How massive stars die-what sort of explosion and remnant each produces-depends chiefly on the masses of their helium cores and hydrogen envelopes at death. For single stars, stellar winds are the only means of mass loss, and these are a function of the metallicity of the star. We discuss how metallicity, and a simplified prescription for its effect on mass loss, affects the evolution and final fate of massive stars. We map, as a function of mass and metallicity, where black holes and neutron stars are likely to form and where different types of supernovae are produced. Integrating over an initial mass function, we derive the relative populations as a function of metallicity. Provided that single stars rotate rapidly enough at death, we speculate on stellar populations that might produce gamma-ray bursts and jet-driven supernovae.
Growing evidence suggests that the first generation of stars may have been
quite massive (~100-300 M_sun). Could these stars have left a distinct
nucleosynthetic signature? We explore the nucleosynthesis of helium cores in
the mass range M_He=64 to 133 Msun, corresponding to main-sequence star masses
of approximately 140 to 260 M_sun. Above M_He=133 M_sun, without rotation and
using current reaction rates, a black hole is formed and no nucleosynthesis is
ejected. For lighter helium core masses, ~40 to 63 M_sun, violent pulsations
occur, induced by the pair instability and accompanied by supernova-like mass
ejection, but the star eventually produces a large iron core in hydrostatic
equilibrium. It is likely that this core, too, collapses to a black hole, thus
cleanly separating the heavy element nucleosynthesis of pair instability
supernovae from those of other masses, both above and below. Indeed, black hole
formation is a likely outcome for all Population III stars with main sequence
masses between about 25 M_sun and 140 M_sun (M_He = 9 to 63 M_sun) as well as
those above 260 M_sun. Nucleosynthesis in pair-instability supernovae varies
greatly with the mass of the helium core which determines the maximum
temperature reached during the bounce. At the upper range of exploding core
masses, a maximum of 57 M_sun of Ni56 is produced making these the most
energetic and the brightest thermonuclear explosions in the universe.
Integrating over a distribution of masses, we find that pair instability
supernovae produce a roughly solar distribution of nuclei having even nuclear
charge, but are remarkably deficient in producing elements with odd nuclear
charge. Also, essentially no elements heavier than zinc are produced due to a
lack of s- and r-processes.Comment: 20 pages, including 5 figures; accepted by Ap
We present the first calculations to follow the evolution of all stable nuclei and their radioactive progenitors in stellar models computed from the onset of central hydrogen burning through explosion as Type II supernovae. Calculations are performed for Pop I stars of 15, 19, 20, 21, and 25 M ⊙ using the most recently available experimental and theoretical nuclear data, revised opacity tables, neutrino losses, and weak interaction rates, and taking into account mass loss due to stellar winds. A novel "adaptive" reaction network is employed with a variable number of nuclei (adjusted each time step) ranging from ∼ 700 on the main sequence to 2200 during the explosion. The network includes, at any given time, all relevant isotopes from hydrogen through polonium (Z = 84). Even the limited grid of stellar masses studied suggests that overall good agreement can be achieved with the solar abundances of nuclei between 16 O and 90 Zr. Interesting discrepancies are seen in the 20 M ⊙ model and, so far, only in that model, that are a consequence of the merging of the oxygen, neon, and carbon shells about a day prior to core collapse. We find that, in some stars, most of the "p-process" nuclei can be produced in the convective oxygen burning shell moments prior to collapse; in others, they are made only in the explosion. Serious deficiencies still exist in all cases for the p-process isotopes of Ru and Mo.
The evolution of rotating stars with zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) masses in the range 8 M ⊙ to 25 M ⊙ is followed through all stages of stable evolution. The initial angular momentum is chosen such that the star's equatorial rotational velocity on the ZAMS ranges from zero to ∼ 70 % of break-up. The stars rotate rigidly on the ZAMS as a consequence of angular momentum redistribution during the pre-main sequence evolution. Redistribution of angular momentum and chemical species are then followed as a consequence of Eddington-Sweet circulation, the Solberg-Høiland instability, the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability, and secular and dynamic shear instability. The effects of the centrifugal force on the stellar structure are included. Convectively unstable zones are assumed to tend towards rigid rotation and uncertain mixing efficiencies are gauged by observations. We find, as noted in previous work, that rotation increases the helium core masses and enriches the stellar envelopes with products of hydrogen burning. We determine, for the first time, the angular momentum distribution in typical presupernova stars along with their detailed chemical structure. Angular momentum loss due to (non-magnetic) stellar winds and the redistribution of angular momentum during core hydrogen burning are of crucial importance for the specific angular momentum of the core. Neglecting magnetic fields, we find angular momentum transport from the core to the envelope to be unimportant after core helium burning. We obtain specific angular momenta for the iron core and overlaying material of 10 16 . . . 10 17 erg s. These values are insensitive to the initial angular momentum and to uncertainties in the efficiencies of rotational mixing. They are small enough to avoid triaxial deformations of the iron core before it collapses, but could lead to neutron stars which rotate close to break-up. They are also in the range required for the collapsar model of gamma-ray bursts. The apparent discrepancy with the measured rotation rates of young pulsars is discussed.
Those massive stars that give rise to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) during their deaths must be endowed with an unusually large amount of angular momentum in their inner regions, 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the ones that make common pulsars. Yet the inclusion of mass loss and angular momentum transport by magnetic torques during the precollapse evolution is known to sap the core of the necessary rotation. Here we explore the evolution of very rapidly rotating massive stars, including stripped-down helium cores that might result from mergers or mass transfer in a binary, and single stars that rotate unusually rapidly on the main sequence. For the highest possible rotation rates (about 400 km s À1 ), a novel sort of evolution is encountered in which single stars mix completely on the main sequence, never becoming red giants. Such stars, essentially massive ''blue stragglers,'' produce helium-oxygen cores that rotate unusually rapidly. Such stars might comprise roughly 1% of all stars above 10 M and can, under certain circumstances, retain enough angular momentum to make GRBs. Because this possibility is very sensitive to mass loss, GRBs are much more probable in regions of low metallicity.
As a massive star evolves through multiple stages of nuclear burning on its way to becoming a supernova, a complex, differentially rotating structure is set up. Angular momentum is transported by a variety of classic instabilities, and also by magnetic torques from fields generated by the differential rotation. We present the first stellar evolution calculations to follow the evolution of rotating massive stars including, at least approximately, all these effects, magnetic and non-magnetic, from the zero-age main sequence until the onset of iron-core collapse. The evolution and action of the magnetic fields is as described by Spruit (2002) and a range of uncertain parameters is explored. In general, we find that magnetic torques decrease the final rotation rate of the collapsing iron core by However, with the exception of Spruit & Phinney (1998) and Maeder & Meynet (2004), all studies of massive stellar evolution to date have ignored what is probably a major effect,
Hans Bethe contributed in many ways to our understanding of the supernovae that happen in massive stars, but, to this day, a first principles model of how the explosion is energized is lacking. Nevertheless, a quantitative theory of nucleosynthesis is possible. We present a survey of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in 32 stars of solar metallicity in the mass range 12 to 120 M ⊙ . The most recent set of solar abundances, opacities, mass loss rates, and current estimates of nuclear reaction rates are employed. Restrictions on the mass cut and explosion energy of the supernovae based upon nucleosynthesis, measured neutron star masses, and light curves are discussed and applied. The nucleosynthetic results, when integrated over a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF), agree quite well with what is seen in the sun. We discuss in some detail the production of the long lived radioactivities, 26 Al and 60 Fe, and why recent model-based estimates of the ratio 60 Fe/ 26 Al are overly large compared with what satellites have observed. A major source of the discrepancy is the uncertain nuclear cross sections for the creation and destruction of these unstable isotopes.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.