The study demonstrates that allele-specific silencing with miRYR2-U10 prevents life-threatening arrhythmias in CPVT mice, suggesting that the reduction of mutant RyR2 may be a novel therapeutic approach for CPVT.
These data suggest sCgA as a reliable marker of SAM activation. Furthermore, the relationship between sCgA and exercise intensity highlights the potential use of this noninvasive parameter in monitoring the adrenergic response during intense physical stress.
In postmenopausal women, walking training, rather than SPA, influences DHEA-S and cytokine concentrations and their correlations, thus interfering with adrenal steroids and the inflammatory markers network. Physical exercise acts in parallel on menopausal neuroendocrine alterations and on the systemic inflammatory profile independent of SPA changes.
Ageing is associated with an increase in the incidence of heart failure, even if the existence of a real age-related cardiomyopathy remains controversial. Effective contraction and relaxation of cardiomyocytes depend on efficient production of ATP (handled by mitochondria) and on proper Ca2+ supply to myofibrils during excitation–contraction (EC) coupling (handled by Ca2+ release units, CRUs). Here, we analyzed mitochondria and CRUs in hearts of adult (4 months old) and aged (≥24 months old) mice. Analysis by confocal and electron microscopy (CM and EM, respectively) revealed an age-related loss of proper organization and disposition of both mitochondria and EC coupling units: (a) mitochondria are improperly disposed and often damaged (percentage of severely damaged mitochondria: adults 3.5 ± 1.1%; aged 16.5 ± 3.5%); (b) CRUs that are often misoriented (longitudinal) and/or misplaced from the correct position at the Z line. Immunolabeling with antibodies that mark either the SR or T-tubules indicates that in aged cardiomyocytes the sarcotubular system displays an extensive disarray. This disarray could be in part caused by the decreased expression of Cav-3 and JP-2 detected by western blot (WB), two proteins involved in formation of T-tubules and in docking SR to T-tubules in dyads. By WB analysis, we also detected increased levels of 3-NT in whole hearts homogenates of aged mice, a product of nitration of protein tyrosine residues, recognized as marker of oxidative stress. Finally, a detailed EM analysis of CRUs (formed by association of SR with T-tubules) points to ultrastructural modifications, i.e., a decrease in their frequency (adult: 5.1 ± 0.5; aged: 3.9 ± 0.4 n./50 μm2) and size (adult: 362 ± 40 nm; aged: 254 ± 60 nm). The changes in morphology and disposition of mitochondria and CRUs highlighted by our results may underlie an inefficient supply of Ca2+ ions and ATP to the contractile elements, and possibly contribute to cardiac dysfunction in ageing.
Given a set R of robots, each one located at different vertices of an infinite regular tessellation graph, we aim to explore the Arbitrary Pattern Formation (APF ) problem. Given a multiset F of grid vertices such that |R| = |F |, APF asks for a distributed algorithm that moves robots so as to reach a configuration similar to F . Similarity means that robots must be disposed as F regardless of translations, rotations, reflections. So far, as possible graph discretizing the Euclidean plane only the standard square grid has been considered in the context of the classical Look-Compute-Move model. However, it is natural to consider also the other regular tessellation graphs, that are triangular and hexagonal grids. We provide a resolution algorithm for APF when the initial configuration is asymmetric and the considered topology is any regular tessellation graph.
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