BackgroundLimitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis, as the development of resistant strains, are known by the scientific community. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of thymol against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei strains and to determine its mode of action and synergistic effect when combined with the synthetic antifungal nystatin.MethodsThe minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using a microdilution technique, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was determined via subculture sowing. The mode of action of thymol was established by verifying fungal growth in the presence of sorbitol or ergosterol. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) was determined using the checkerboard method.ResultsThymol presented an antifungal effect, with MICs of 39 μg/mL for C. albicans and C. krusei and 78 μg/mL for C. tropicalis. The results of the antifungal test remained unchanged in the presence of sorbitol; however, the MIC value of thymol against C. albicans increased eight times (from 39.0 to 312.5 μg/mL) in presence of exogenous ergosterol. The combination of thymol and nystatin reduced the MIC values of both products by 87.4 %, generating an FIC index of 0.25.ConclusionsThymol was found to have a fungicidal effect on Candida species and a synergistic effect when combined with nystatin.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of dental trauma in the permanent anterior teeth of schoolchildren in Campina Grande, Brazil. A sample of 448 schoolchildren, 228 boys and 220 girls, aged 7-12 years, were randomly selected from 17 public schools in an urban area. The sample selection was carried out in two stages: first, schools were selected by simple sampling and then children were chosen using a proportionality coefficient. Data were collected through clinical examinations and interviews, after examiner calibration. Overjet (OJ) was considered a risk factor when it presented values higher than 3 mm, while lip coverage was classified as adequate or inadequate. Yates' chi-squared test verified the association between the variables and odds ratio. Significance level was set at 5%. The prevalence of dental injuries was 21%. Boys experienced more injuries than girls, 21.9% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). Falls and collisions were the main causes of dental trauma, 63.8% and 24.5%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and OJ (95% CI 0.22-0.63) (P < 0.001) and between TDI and inadequate lip coverage (95% CI 9.16-34.93) (P < 0.001). Data indicated that boys presenting an OJ size >3 mm and inadequate lip coverage were more likely to have TDI in Campina Grande, Brazil.
The aim of the present study was determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental caries and periodontal disease in Brazilian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 80 patients ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Oral exams were conducted by an examiner with records of DMFT, dmft, Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The statistical analysis used Poisson Regression with robust variance estimation (α = 0.05). The prevalence of dental caries was 59.3%, with DMFT and mean dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 and 2.22 ± 3.23, respectively. The mean GBI was 22.44%, and in the CPI, the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep pockets were 94.73%, 79.62%, 12.90% and 3.22%, respectively. The caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years were associated with the dental caries experience (PR = 1.439; 95%CI = 1.09–1.89). The periodontal alterations were associated with female sex (PR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.69–0.97), caregiver’s educational level of less than eight years (PR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.03–1.29), poor oral perception (PR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.80–0.98), serious communication problem (PR = 0.87; 95%CI = 0.76–0.99) and athetoid type of CP (PR = 0.85; 95%CI = 0.75–0.97). The patients with CP presented high dental caries experience and periodontal alterations, which were associated with their demographic, socioeconomic, oral health perception and systemic information.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of injuries to the head and orofacial region in physically abused children and adolescents from a city of the Northeast of Brazil, based on the review of forensic medical reports. This retrospective study was undertaken by the analysis of expert medical reports derived from medical forensic exams performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine of the city of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, between January 2003 and December 2006. From a universe of 11 624 reports issued in this time span, the study sample consisted of 1070 reports referring to children and adolescents aged 0-17 years that were confirmedly victims of physical abuse. Male children (52.8%) in the 13- to 17-year-old range (72.4%) were the most frequent victims, with an association between gender and age group (P = 0.039). Most children (58.2%) presented a single type of injury, with a statistically significant association between number of injuries and gender (P = 0.040), but no significant association between number of injuries and age (P = 0.163). The percentage of victims injured in the head and face corresponded to 56.3%, with a statistically significant association between the presence of injury in the head and face and gender (P = 0.046). As much as 12.4% of the children and adolescents presented intraoral injuries, with no significant difference between genders (P = 0.543). However, a statistically significant association was observed between the number of existing injuries and the presence of oral injuries (P = 0.005). The maxilla was predominantly affected (55.6%), most injuries (94.8%) being soft-tissue lacerations located mainly in the upper lip (46.4%). The findings of this survey revealed a high prevalence of injuries to the head and orofacial region of physically abused children and adolescents.
BackgroundPediatric medications may possess a high erosive potential to dental tissues due to the existence of acid components in their formulations. The purpose was to determine the erosive and cariogenic potential of pediatric oral liquid medications through the analysis of their physicochemical properties in vitro.MethodsA total of 59 substances were selected from the drug reference list of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), which belong to 11 therapeutic classes, as follows: analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, corticosteroids, antihistamines, antitussives, bronchodilators, antibacterials, antiparasitics, antiemetics, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics. Measurement of pH was performed by potentiometry, using a digital pH meter. For the Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) chemical assay, a 0.1 N NaOH standard solution was used, which was titrated until drug pH was neutralized. The Total Soluble Solids Contents (TSSC) quantification was carried out by refractometry using Brix scale and the analysis of Total Sugar Content was performed according to Fehling’s method. In addition, it was analyzed the information contained in the drug inserts with regard to the presence of sucrose and type of acid and sweetener added to the formulations.ResultsAll drug classes showed acidic pH, and the lowest mean was found for antipsychotics (2.61 ± 0.08). There was a large variation in the TTA (0.1% - 1.18%) and SST (10.44% - 57.08%) values. High total sugar contents were identified in the antitussives (53.25%) and anticonvulsants (51.75%). As described in the drug inserts, sucrose was added in 47.5% of the formulations, as well as citric acid (39.0%), sodium saccharin (36.4%) and sorbitol (34.8%).ConclusionThe drugs analyzed herein showed physicochemical characteristics indicative of a cariogenic and erosive potential on dental tissues. Competent bodies’ strategies should be implemented in order to broaden the knowledge of health professionals, drug manufacturers and general consuming public about the risks from the consumption of medicines potentially harmful to dental tissues.
The primary dentition was most affected by fracture of enamel, especially the maxillary central incisor teeth, in patients between 2 and 3 years of age. There is a need of providing adequate preventive and treatment care for preschool children.
Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion.
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