Millimeter wave (mmWave) wideband channels in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission are described by a sparse set of impulse responses in the angle-delay, or space-time (ST), domain. These characteristics will be even more prominent in the THz band used in future systems. We consider two approaches for channel estimation: compressedsensing (CS), exploiting the sparsity in the angular/delay domain, and low-rank (LR), exploiting the algebraic structure of channel matrix. Both approaches share several commonalities, and this paper provides for the first time i) a comparison of the two approaches, and ii) new versions of CS and LR methods that significantly improve performance in terms of mean squared error (MSE), computational complexity, and latency. We derive the asymptotic MSE bound for any estimator of the ST-MIMO multipath channels with invariant angles/delays and time-varying fading, with unknown angle/delay diversity order: the bound also accounts for the degradation introduced by sub-optimal separable channel models. We will show that in the considered scenarios both CS and LR approaches attain the bound. Our performance assessment over ideal and 3 rd generation partnership project (3GPP) channel models, suitable for the fifth-generation (5G) and beyond of cellular networks, shows the trade-off obtained by the methods over various metrics: i) CS methods are converging faster than the LR methods, both attaining the asymptotic MSE bound; ii) the CS methods depend on the array manifold, while LR methods are independent of the array calibration; iii) CS solutions are more complex than LR solutions.
1 In-region location verification (IRLV) aims at verifying whether a user is inside a region of interest (ROI). In wireless networks, IRLV can exploit the features of the channel between the user and a set of trusted access points. In practice, the channel feature statistics is not available and we resort to machine learning (ML) solutions for IRLV. We first show that solutions based on either neural networks (NNs) or support vector machines (SVMs) and typical loss functions are Neyman-Pearson (N-P)-optimal at learning convergence for sufficiently complex learning machines and large training datasets . Indeed, for finite training, ML solutions are more accurate than the N-P test based on estimated channel statistics.Then, as estimating channel features outside the ROI may be difficult, we consider one-class classifiers, namely auto-encoders NNs and one-class SVMs, which however are not equivalent to the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), typically replacing the N-P test in the one-class problem. Numerical results support the results in realistic wireless networks, with channel models including path-loss, shadowing, and fading.
Index TermsAuto-encoder, in-region location verification, machine learning, neural network, support vector machine.
The Fifth Generation of Communication Networks (5G) envisions a broader range of services compared to previous generations, supporting an increased number of use cases and applications. The broader application domain leads to increase in consumer use and, in turn, increased hacker activity. Due to this chain of events, strong and efficient security measures are required to create a secure and trusted environment for users. In this paper, we provide an objective overview of 5G security issues and the existing and newly proposed technologies designed to secure the 5G environment. We categorize security technologies using Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) layers and, for each layer, we discuss vulnerabilities, threats, security solutions, challenges, gaps and open research issues. While we discuss all seven OSI layers, the most interesting findings are in layer one, the physical layer. In fact, compared to other layers, the physical layer between the base stations and users' device presents increased opportunities for attacks such as eavesdropping and data fabrication. However, no single OSI layer can stand on its own to provide proper security. All layers in the 5G must work together, providing their own unique technology in an effort to ensure security and integrity for 5G data.
The high configurability and low cost of Reflective Intelligent Surfaces (RISs) made them a promising solution for enhancing the capabilities of Beyond Fifth-Generation (B5G) networks. Recent works proposed to mount RISs on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), combining the high network configurability provided by RIS with the mobility brought by UAVs. However, the RIS represents an additional weight that impacts the battery lifetime of the UAV. Furthermore, the practicality of the resulting link in terms of communication channel quality and security have not been assessed in detail. In this paper, we highlight all the essential features that need to be considered for the practical deployment of RIS-enabled UAVs. We are the first to show how the RIS size and its power consumption impact the UAV flight time. We then assess how the RIS size, carrier frequency, and UAV flying altitude affects the path loss. Lastly, we propose a novel particle swarm-based approach to maximize coverage and improve the confidentiality of transmissions in a cellular scenario with the support of RISs carried by UAVs.
We consider the problem of scheduling and power allocation for the downlink of a 5G cellular system operating in the millimeter wave (mmWave) band and serving two sets of users: fix-rate (FR) users typically seen in device-to-device (D2D) communications, and variable-rate (VR) users, or high data rate services. The scheduling objective is the weighted sum-rate of both FR and VR users, and the constraints ensure that active FR users get the required rate. The weights of the objective function provide a trade-off between the number of served FR users and the resources allocated to VR users. For mmWave channels the virtual channel matrix obtained by applying fixed discrete-Fourier transform (DFT) beamformers at both the transmitter and the receiver is sparse. This results into a sparsity of the resulting multiple access channel, which is exploited to simplify scheduling, first establishing an interference graph among users and then grouping users according to their orthogonality. The original scheduling problem is solved using a graph-coloring algorithm on the interference graph in order to select sub-sets of orthogonal VR users. Two options are considered for FR users: either they are chosen orthogonal to VR users or non-orthogonal. A waterfilling algorithm is then used to allocate power to the FR users.
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