Health and wellbeing are determined by a number of complex, interrelated factors. The application of design thinking to questions around health may prove valuable and complement existing approaches. A number of public health projects utilizing human centered design (HCD), or design thinking, have recently emerged, but no synthesis of the literature around these exists. The results of a scoping review of current research on human centered design for health outcomes are presented. The review aimed to understand why and how HCD can be valuable in the contexts of health related research. Results identified pertinent literature as well as gaps in information on the use of HCD for public health research, design, implementation and evaluation. A variety of contexts were identified in which design has been used for health. Global health and design thinking have different underlying conceptual models and terminology, creating some inherent tensions, which could be overcome through clear communication and documentation in collaborative projects. The review concludes with lessons learned from the review on how future projects can better integrate design thinking with global health research.
To explore why women in Ghana initiate breast-feeding early or late, who gives advice about initiation and what foods or fluids are given to babies when breast-feeding initiation is late. Qualitative data were collected through 52 semistructured interviews with recent mothers, 8 focus group discussions with women of child-bearing age and 13 semistructured interviews with health workers, policy makers and implementers. The major reasons for delaying initiation of breast-feeding were the perception of a lack of breast milk, performing postbirth activities such as bathing, perception that the mother and the baby need rest after birth and the baby not crying for milk. Facilitating factors for early initiation included delivery in a health facility, where the staff encouraged early breast-feeding, and the belief in some ethnic groups that putting the baby to the breast encourages the milk. Policy makers tended to focus on exclusive breast-feeding rather than early initiation. Most activities for the promotion of early initiation of breast-feeding were focused on health facilities with very few community activities. It is important to raise awareness about early initiation of breast-feeding in communities and in the policy arena. Interventions should focus on addressing barriers to early initiation and should include a community component.
Summaryobjectives To assess newborn care-seeking practices in a rural area of Ghana where most births take place at home in order to inform potential strategies for reducing newborn mortality.methods Qualitative, ethnographic study with quantitative data from a birth cohort collected as part of the surveillance system of an ongoing randomized controlled trial. Data collected comprised 84 h of participant observation (including following an ill newborn through a hospital visit), 14 in-depth interviews with key informants (older mothers and grandmothers), 45 semistructured interviews with mothers, 28 case histories from women who had recently given birth and 32 expert interviews with local health providers. Thirteen focus groups were held with men and women, and narrative histories of newborn deaths were taken from eight women.
Background Despite potential for benefit, mindfulness remains an emergent area in perinatal mental health care, and evidence of smartphone-based mindfulness training for perinatal depression is especially limited. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a smartphone-based mindfulness training intervention during pregnancy on perinatal depression and other mental health problems with a randomized controlled design. Methods Pregnant adult women who were potentially at risk of perinatal depression were recruited from an obstetrics clinic and randomized to a self-guided 8-week smartphone-based mindfulness training during pregnancy group or attention control group. Mental health indicators were surveyed over five time points through the postpartum period by online self-assessment. The assessor who collected the follow-up data was blind to the assignment. The primary outcome was depression as measured by symptoms, and secondary outcomes were anxiety, stress, affect, sleep, fatigue, memory, and fear. Results A total of 168 participants were randomly allocated to the mindfulness training (n=84) or attention control (n=84) group. The overall dropout rate was 34.5%, and 52.4% of the participants completed the intervention. Mindfulness training participants reported significant improvement of depression (group × time interaction χ24=16.2, P=.003) and secondary outcomes (χ24=13.1, P=.01 for anxiety; χ24=8.4, P=.04 for positive affect) compared to attention control group participants. Medium between-group effect sizes were found on depression and positive affect at postintervention, and on anxiety in late pregnancy (Cohen d=0.47, –0.49, and 0.46, respectively). Mindfulness training participants reported a decreased risk of positive depressive symptom (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS] score>9) compared to attention control participants postintervention (odds ratio [OR] 0.391, 95% CI 0.164-0.930) and significantly higher depression symptom remission with different EPDS reduction scores from preintervention to postintervention (OR 3.471-27.986). Parity did not show a significant moderating effect; however, for nulliparous women, mindfulness training participants had significantly improved depression symptoms compared to nulliparous attention control group participants (group × time interaction χ24=18.1, P=.001). Conclusions Smartphone-based mindfulness training is an effective intervention in improving maternal perinatal depression for those who are potentially at risk of perinatal depression in early pregnancy. Nulliparous women are a promising subgroup who may benefit more from mindfulness training. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR1900028521; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=33474
The social costs of obtaining skilled attendance at birth must be offset by community level strategies such as mobilization of older women and husbands, and ensuring health providers extend professional, humane care to laboring women.
Some study participants tried STSC but none did it continuously. As promotion of STSC could be vital for improving newborn survival in low resource settings, tackling perceived barriers may be an important way to increase acceptability of this practice.
An increase in the marketing and use of herbal galactagogues among breastfeeding mothers in the US has raised the issue of how best to provide support and information on the use of these products, particularly in light of limited availability of certified lactation counselors and continued suboptimal rates of breastfeeding globally. Currently, no cross-sectional data are available on the experiences and attitudes of mothers regarding the use of herbal and pharmaceutical galactagogues for lactation in the US. The findings of an online survey of 188 breastfeeding mothers on experiences with and sources of information on galactagogues are presented. Most mothers (76%) reported that while breastfeeding, they felt as though they were not making enough milk to meet the needs of their child, and yet 54% also indicated that they had not supplemented with formula. A large proportion of respondents reported utilizing galactagogues to increase lactation and finding them useful. The results indicated that most women learned about galactagogues from the Internet or by word of mouth through friends. Lactation consultants were the third-most reported sources of information on these products. While many respondents reported perceiving galactagogues as innocuous, more evidence on safety and efficacy is needed to support women properly who seek out and use them. Large-scale studies of the prevalence of galactagogue use in the US and rigorous evaluation of use globally are needed to ensure that mothers who choose to breastfeed may safely avail themselves of all options when counseling support is insufficient.
SAX J1818.6−1703 has been characterized as a supergiant fast X-ray transient system on the basis of several INTEGRAL/IBIS detections since the original BeppoSAX Wide Field Camera detection. Using IBIS/ISGRI, Swift/BAT and archival observations, we show that, in fact, SAX J1818.6−1703 exhibits emission on a period of 30 ± 0.1 d, with a high degree of recurrence. SAX J1818.6−1703 is therefore the second supergiant fast X-ray transient shown to exhibit periodic outbursts, but with a considerably shorter period than the other known system, IGR J11215−5952.
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