Increased production of the Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Brazil has given rise to interest in identifying the phytophagous species that might damage this crop to inform preventive control and integrated pest management strategies. In this study, we report the occurrence and describe the damage that larvae and adults of Lema bilineata Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) cause in P. peruviana. The number of L. bilineata individuals, both larvae and adults, significantly affected the total consumption of P. peruviana leaves. We also report, for the first time, three natural enemies, including a fungus, a fly, and an ant, which are associated with this pest in Brazil and may play a role in biological control strategies.
Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the predominant aphid in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) production systems in Brazil. This pest species directly damages the plants and is also responsible for spreading viruses. Further, C. fragaefolii often renders strawberry cultivation unviable, because of its high reproductive rate, as well as the large number of individuals generated through parthenogenesis. The present study aimed to (1) evaluate the feeding behavior of C. fragaefolii in four strawberry cultivars (Albion, Aromas, Camarosa, and San Andreas) and (2) identify the resistance factors associated with the number and type of trichomes in the cultivars, and also its effect on the feeding behavior of C. fragaefolii, using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. The results revealed an intrinsic relationship between the number of trichomes on the cultivar and feeding behavior of C. fragaefolii. A higher number of trichomes, both tector and glandular, was observed in Albion compared to that of other cultivars, resulting in a longer no probing (Np) period per insect, and a longer Np phase. A relatively short phloem phase and ingestion time of the phloem sieve elements were also observed in Albion. These results suggest that the trichomes act as a physical barrier creating difficulties for C. fragaefolii to feed, thereby altering its feeding behavior in the four cultivars studied.
This study provides the first contribution of the biology and life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae), an important strawberry pest throughout the world. This species lives in the crown and leaf petioles of the plant. It is difficulty to rear this species in laboratory due to protocooperation with ants observed only in the field. We studied the life cycle of A. forbesi on the leaves of the Albion strawberry cultivar at 25 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and a 12-h photophase. The experiment was randomised with 100 replicates. The parameters of the fertility life table were calculated using TabVida. In the population studied, 25% and 46% had four and three instars, respectively. A mean of 1.43 nymphs per female per day was generated. The mean reproductive period was seven days and the mean longevity was 10 days. In every 11 days there is a generation of A. forbesi, where each female has the potential to generate between 6 to 9 individuals daily, increasing its population by 1.2 times. The average life cycle was 16.8 days. High viability observed in all instars and the resulting values of R 0 , r m and λ suggest that A. forbesi has the capacity to increase their numbers in a short period of time, while generating high populations in strawberry crops, requiring differential management. Palavras-chave: Fragaria x ananassa, pulgão-da-raiz, ciclo biológico, tabela de vida e fertilidade.
The presence of weeds in the margins of strawberry crops can enhance populations of predatory mites as a measure to support conservation biological control. The aims of this study were (i) to assess the composition of the acarofauna associated with strawberries and the accompanying herbaceous plants in an organic farming system, and (ii) to evaluate the possible relationships between phytophagous and predatory mites occurring in this system. Strawberry leaves and whole plants of weeds were sampled biweekly from August 2014 to February 2015 in Lapa (Paraná, Brazil). In total, 23 weed species belonging to 10 families were identified; 3768 mite individuals (from 15 families and 4 suborders) were recovered, 77% on strawberries and 23% on weeds. Abundance of predatory mites on weeds was greater than on strawberry cultivars. On strawberries, the most abundant family was Tetranychidae (84%) followed by Phytoseiidae (11.6%). In total, 16 predatory mite species from the Phytoseiidae family were identified, 13 of them occurring on strawberry leaflets. Typholodromalus aripo, Neoseiulus californicus and Typhlodromips mangleae were the most abundant mite species on strawberry leaves. On weeds, most individuals were predatory mites (59%), whereas phytophagous mites represented 17.2%. The most abundant family was Phytoseiidae (36.4%). On weeds, the phytoseiid mite T. aripo was the most abundant species, representing 34.7%. Besides being found on strawberry leaflets, T. aripo was associated with 15 weed species. Among the weeds, Bidens pilosa showed the highest values of the Shannon index (1.97), Margalef index (3.04), and Pielou's evenness index (0.95). This study emphasizes the importance of surrounding weeds as a shelter for beneficial mitefauna in strawberry fields, likely contributing to enhance conservation biological control.
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