Introduction: Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency contributes to the development of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms had been described to play a role in these conditions since vitamin D receptors were found in many tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D status and VDR gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters in Russian middle-aged women.Materials and Methods: A total of 697 women aged between 30 to 55 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and four VDR gene polymorphisms rs1544410 (BsmI), rs7975232 (ApaI), rs731236 (TaqI), and rs2228570 (FokI) were measured. We applied the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria to identify subjects with MS.Results: 9.3% of subjects had normal vitamin D level, while 90.7% were insufficient or deficient. Abdominal obesity (AO) was seen in 75.5%, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2DM was observed in 33.3%, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in 32.2% and hypertriglyceridemia in 23.4%. Serum 25(OH)D level in women with or without MS did not differ (48.6 ± 1.8 and 51.1 ± 1.5 nmol/l, p > 0.05). Subjects with vitamin D deficiency showed an increased risk of AO [CI 95% 2.23; 1.15–4.30] and low HDL-C [CI95% 2.60; 1.04–6.49] compared to subjects with normal 25(OH)D level. IGT and T2DM risk was increased only when 25(OH)D concentration was less than 39.0 nmol/l [CI 95% 7.17; 2.99–17.7], but risk of MS did not differ in normal vitamin D status subjects and insufficient/deficient ones (p > 0.05). T allele carriers (A) of rs7975232 had higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with the GG (aa) genotypes. Similarly, GG (BB) genotype carriers of rs1544410 had higher triglyceride levels than subjects with A (b) allele carriers. However VDR gene polymorphisms did not seem to be associated with an increased risk of MS.Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency, rs7975232, and rs1544410 VDR gene variants are associated with MS parameters in Russian middle-aged women.
In the last 2 years, observational studies have shown that a low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level affected the severity of infection with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). This study aimed to analyze the potential effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection morbidity and severity in health care workers. Of 128 health care workers, 91 (consisting of 38 medical doctors (42%), 38 nurses (42%), and 15 medical attendants (16%)) were randomized into two groups receiving vitamin D supplementation. Participants of group I (n = 45) received water-soluble cholecalciferol at a dose of 50,000 IU/week for 2 consecutive weeks, followed by 5000 IU/day for the rest of the study. Participants of group II (n = 46) received water-soluble cholecalciferol at a dose of 2000 IU/day. For both groups, treatment lasted 3 months. Baseline serum 25(OH)D level in health care workers varied from 3.0 to 65.1 ng/mL (median, 17.7 (interquartile range, 12.2; 24.7) ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, and normal vitamin D status were diagnosed in 60%, 30%, and 10%, respectively. Only 78 subjects completed the study. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with an increase in serum 25(OH)D level, but only intake of 5000 IU/day was accompanied by normalization of serum 25(OH)D level, which occurred in 53% of cases. Neither vitamin D intake nor vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency were associated with a decrease in SARS-CoV-2 morbidity (odds ratio = 2.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 7.12). However, subjects receiving high-dose vitamin D had only asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in 10 (26%) cases; at the same time, participants who received 2000 IU/day showed twice as many SARS-CoV-2 cases, with mild clinical features in half of them.
Recent studies showed that a low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was associated with a higher risk of morbidity and severe course of COVID-19. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of cholecalciferol supplementation on the clinical features and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19. A serum 25(OH)D level was determined in 311 COVID-19 patients. Among them, 129 patients were then randomized into two groups with similar concomitant medication. Group I (n = 56) received a bolus of cholecalciferol at a dose of 50,000 IU on the first and the eighth days of hospitalization. Patients from Group II (n = 54) did not receive the supplementation. We found significant differences between groups with the preferential increase in serum 25(OH)D level and Δ 25(OH)D in Group I on the ninth day of hospitalization (p < 0.001). The serum 25(OH)D level on the ninth day was negatively associated with the number of bed days (r = −0.23, p = 0.006); we did not observe other clinical benefits in patients receiving an oral bolus of cholecalciferol. Moreover, in Group I, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher (p = 0.04; p = 0.02), while the C-reactive protein level was significantly lower on the ninth day of hospitalization (p = 0.02). Patients with supplementation of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol, compared to those without supplementation, showed a decrease in the frequencies of CD38++CD27 transitional and CD27−CD38+ mature naive B cells (p = 0.006 and p = 0.02) and an increase in the level of CD27−CD38− DN B cells (p = 0.02). Thus, the rise in serum 25(OH)D level caused by vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D insufficient and deficient patients may positively affect immune status and hence the course of COVID-19.
We evaluated associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and severity of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in hospitalized patients. We assessed serum 25(OH)D level in 133 patients aged 21–93 years. Twenty-five (19%) patients had severe disease, 108 patients (81%) had moderate disease, and 18 (14%) patients died. 25(OH)D level ranged from 3.0 to 97.0 ng/mL (median, 13.5 [25%; 75%, 9.6; 23.3] ng/mL). Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 90 patients, including 37 with severe deficiency. In patients with severe course of disease, 25(OH)D level was lower (median, 9.7 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 14.9] ng/mL), and vitamin D deficiency was more common than in patients with moderate course (median, 14.6 [25%; 75%, 10.6; 24.4] ng/mL, p = 0.003). In patients who died, 25(OH)D was 9.6 [25%; 75%, 6.0; 11.5] ng/mL, compared with 14.8 [25%; 75%, 10.1; 24.3] ng/mL in discharged patients (p = 0.001). Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome. The threshold for 25(OH)D level associated with increased risk of severe course was 11.7 ng/mL. Approximately the same 25(OH)D level, 10.9 ng/mL, was associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, most COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency; severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and fatal outcome.
A low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level is considered as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 severity. However, the association between vitamin D status and outcomes in COVID-19 is controversial. In the present study we investigate the association between the serum 25(OH)D level, immune response, and clinical disease course in patients with COVID-19. A total of 311 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were enrolled. For patients with a vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, the prevalence of severe COVID-19 was higher than in those with a normal 25(OH)D level (p < 0.001). The threshold of 25(OH)D level associated with mortality was 11.4 ng/mL (p = 0.003, ROC analysis). The frequency of CD3+CD4+ T helper (Th) cells was decreased in patients with 25(OH)D level ≤ 11.4 ng/mL, compared to healthy controls (HCs). There were no differences in the frequency of naive, central memory (CM), effector memory (EM), and terminally differentiated effector memory Th cells in patients with COVID-19 compared to HCs. The frequency of T-follicular helpers was decreased both in patients with 25(OH)D level > 11.4 ng/mL (p < 0.001) and 25(OH)D level ≤ 11.4 ng/mL (p = 0.003) compared to HCs. Patients with 25(OH)D level > 11.4 ng/mL had an increased frequency of Th2 CM (p = 0.010) and decreased Th17 CM (p < 0.001). While the frequency of Th2 EM was significantly increased, the frequency of Th17 EM was significantly decreased in both groups compared to HCs. Thus, 25(OH)D level is an independent risk factor for the disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. We demonstrate that the serum 25(OH)D level ≤ 11.4 ng/mL is associated with the stimulation of Th2 and the downregulation of Th17 cell polarization of the adaptive immunity in patients with COVID-19.
Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of the PHPT clinical manifestations and biochemical features in patients who underwent parathyroidectomy. Materials and methods. Medical records of 449 patients from three Medical Centers (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), hospitalized during a period from 2011 to 2018, were reviewed. History and anthropometric data, laboratory results (iPTH, total and iCa, phosphorus, ALP, 24-h urinary calcium, 25(OH)D) and imaging data (ultrasonography, scintigraphy, CT/MRI scan, DXA) were analyzed. Results. Three hundred ninety-four patients were included in the final analysis. Median age was 60 years with 94.2 % being women. Symptomatic disease was evident in 222 (56.4%) patients, asymptomatic in 172 (43.6%). Skeletal involvement was more common for women, while frequency of other manifestations did not differ in both genders. There was no difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in age. Serum iPTH level was higher in symptomatic patients (202.9 and 181.0 pg/ml, p=0.022). Serum 25(OH)D level was estimated in few patients and negatively correlated with PTH (r= -0.294, p=0.005), iCa (r= -0.268, p=0.010) and total Ca (r= -0.284, p=0.014) levels. Manifestations of CVD were observed in 67.7% of cases and affected equally both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (70.7% and 63.4%, p=0.076). Both age and BMI were higher in patients with CVD, whether or not they were symptomatic (62 and 53 years, p<0.0001; 30.4 vs 26.0 kg/m2, p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions. This experience illustrates that symptomatic phenotype is still the most common form of PHPT.
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