Epidemiologic and clinical data for 53 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (cases) were compared with those for 106 patients with endemic paracoccidioidomycosis (controls). The prevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis co-infection was estimated in 1.4% in cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients co-infected with HIV were younger, less involved in agricultural occupations; 83.7% had CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/microL. Paracoccidioidomycosis in co-infected patients usually showed a rapid progression, with more fever, frequent involvement of the lungs, and multiple extrapulmonary lesions. The response to antifungal therapy and deaths caused by paracoccidioidomycosis were similar in the two patient groups, but late relapses were more common in co-infected cases. Paracoccidioidomycosis in HIV-infected patients shows epidemiologic and clinical characteristics differing from those of the endemic disease and should be considered an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in Latin America.
Canini SRMS, Gir E, Hayashida M, Machado AA. Acidentes perfurocortantes entre trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário do inteiror paulista. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem 2002 março-abril; 10(2):172-8. Como mostra a literatura
The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.
Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been documented in all countries that have surveyed for it and may result in an unfavorable response to therapy. The prevalence and characteristics of individuals with transmitted resistance to antiretroviral drugs have been scarcely described in Brazil. We performed antiretroviral resistance testing prior to initiation of therapy in 400 subjects enrolled from 20 centers in 13 Brazilian cities between March and September 2007. Genotyping was conducted using PCR-amplified HIV pol products by automated sequencing, and genotype interpretation was done according to the IAS-USA consensus. Of 400 eligible participants, 387 (95.8%) were successfully tested. Seven percent of antiretroviral-naive patients carried viruses with one or more major mutation associated with drug resistance. The prevalence of these mutations was 1.0% for protease inhibitors, 4.4% for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 1.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The frequency of multidrug resistance among the resistant strains was 13.6%. Among subjects infected with drug-resistant virus, the majority were infected with subtype B viruses (91%). Subjects from the city of São Paulo had higher transmitted resistance mutations compared to the rest of the country. Reporting a partner taking antiretroviral medications was associated with a higher chance of harboring HIV variants with major drug resistance mutations [odds ratio = 2.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-6.16); p = 0.014]. Resistance testing in drug-naive individuals identified 7% of subjects with mutations associated with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs. Continued surveillance of drug-resistant HIV-1 in Brazil is warranted when guidelines for HIV prophylaxis and treatment are updated. Resistance testing among drug-naive patients prior to treatment initiation should be considered, mainly directed at subjects whose partners are already on antiretroviral therapy.
A careful examination of skin and mucosae may be highly useful for the diagnosis of HIV infection. The number of dermatoses tended to increase during the more advanced stages of infection.
Objetivo: caracterizar os acidentes ocupacionais por exposição à material biológico notificados nos serviços de referência da micro região de Votuporanga-SP, no período de 2001 a 2005. Material e método: trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, do tipo levantamento documental retrospectivo, dos casos de acidentes ocupacionais por exposição a material biológico obtidos das 273 fichas de notificação do SINABIO encaminhadas aos bancos de dados do Serviço de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Votuporanga-SP e da Direção Regional de Saúde XXII (DIRXXII) de São José do Rio Preto-SP. Resultados: dos 273 acidentes notificados, 78,4% ocorreram em trabalhadores do sexo feminino e 69,6% entre 20 e 40 anos. Votuporanga foi o município que mais notificou (89,0%) e o auxiliar de enfermagem a categoria mais exposta (48,4%). Em 99,6% dos casos, o atendimento se deu dentro das 72 horas. A exposição mais frequente foi a percutânea (86,8%), o sangue o material biológico de maior contato (98,5%) e a agulha com lúmen a que mais provocou acidentes (72,1%). Dos acidentados, 87,5% eram vacinados contra HBV e desses, 67,0% não haviam realizado o anti-HBs. Em 16,1% das notificações a fonte HIV era desconhecida e em 78,8% era conhecida para o HBV. Para o HCV, detectouse 78,8% de sorologias de pacientes-fonte, das quais 3,3% eram positivas, sendo que 25,9% dos com fonte desconhecida não fizeram acompanhamento. Conclusões: os dados indicam a necessidade de elaboração de um plano de intervenção local, com a aquiescência da comunidade que é, inquestionavelmente, co-responsável pelas propostas de mudança. Palavras-chave: Acidentes Ocupacionais. Risco por Agentes Biológicos. HIV. Hepatite. Notificação de Acidentes de Trabalho. * Parte da dissertação de mestrado "Perfil epidemiológico dos acidentes ocupacionais por exposição a material biológico da micro-região de Votuporanga, período de 2001 a 2005. Universidade de Franca, 2007.
ResumoResumo Resumo Resumo Resumo Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) e Mycoplasma hominis (MH) têm sido detectados em urina de mulheres com lupus eritematoso sistêmico (LES). Avaliamos a presença destes mycoplasmas no endocervix de mulheres apresentando LES. Um total de 40 pacientes com LES (idade média de 40,2 anos), e 51 mulheres sadias (idade média de 30.9 anos), foram estudadas. Swabs do endocervix foram cultivados em meio líquido específico para MH e UU, detectados por teste colorimétrico quantitativo, considerando positivo diluições > 10 3 . Análise estatística foi feita usando teste de Fisher. UU foi detectado em 52,5% das pacientes e em 11,8% dos controles (p= 0.000059). MH foi detectado em 20% das pacientes e 2% dos controles (p=0.003905). Ambos mycoplasmas foram detectados em 7,3 % das pacientes e 0% dos controles (p<0.000001). Os resultados aqui reportados corroboram com a associação de infecção por mycoplasma e LES. Estes agentes podem estimular a produção de clones autoreativos. Palavras-chaves: Palavras-chaves: Palavras-chaves: Palavras-chaves: Palavras-chaves: Mycoplasma. Lupus eritematoso sistêmico. Mycoplasma hominis. Ureaplasma urealyticum. infecção genital. Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) have been detected in the urine of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We evaluated the presence of these mycoplasma in the endocervix of women presenting SLE. A total of 40 SLE patients (mean age 40.2 years), and 51 healthy women (mean age 30.9 years), were studied. Endocervical swabs were cultured in specific liquid media for MH or UU, detected by a quantitative color assay, and considered positive at >10 3 dilutions. Statistical analysis was performed using the two-tailed Fisher test. UU was detected in 52.5 % of patients and in 11.8% of controls (p= 0.000059). MH was detected in 20% of patients and 2% controls (p=0.003905). Both mycoplasmas were detected in 7.3% patients and 0% controls (p<0.000001). The results reported here corroborate the association of the mycoplasma infection and SLE. Thus, these agents may stimulate the production of autoreactive clones.
We estimated the prevalence of oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-OLs) before and during the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. The first period was 1997, when many patients received two types of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. The second study period was 2004 through 2008, when all patients were treated with ART (a combination of two or three classes of drugs, including protease inhibitors). A total of 148 and 388 seropositive participants were examined in 1997 and 2004-2008, respectively. The evaluation consisted of anamnesis and physical examination. The prevalence of HIV-OLs decreased between 1997 (60.1%) and 2004-2008 (29.9%). The HIV-OL responsible for the greatest reduction in prevalence between the two periods was oral candidiasis, of which erythematous candidiasis was the clinical form that decreased most, followed by pseudomembranous candidiasis. In conclusion, we observed a significant reduction in HIV-OLs, which was closely associated with the use of ART. In addition, among patients with a clinical diagnosis of AIDS, we confirmed a significant reduction in HIV-OL prevalence between 1997 and 2004-2008.
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