Leptospira spp., a zoonotic agent relevant for public health, occurs frequently in tropical regions. The aquatic environment represents a viable survival and transmission pathway. This study aimed to investigate the presence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in Phrynops geoffroanus (Geoffroy's side-necked turtle) serum samples using the microagglutination test (MAT), and Leptospira spp. in gastric and cloacal lavage samples using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Antibodies against nine different Leptospira spp. serovars were detected in 45.45% (30/66) of the serum samples. Specific amplification of Leptospira spp. genomic material (331bp) was observed in 16.67% (11/66) of the samples. In conclusion, these freshwater testudines host Leptospira spp. and eliminate them. This situation may represent a risk to public health, especially to people who use urban streams for fishing and recreational activities. Additionally, we described some Leptospira spp. serovars, not yet reported in testudines, detected here in P. geoffroanus.
RESUMOO objetivo foi realizar um estudo clínico e epidemiológico de neoplasias mamárias em cadelas, considerando-se histórico reprodutivo, exame físico, diagnóstico histopatológico e imunoistoquímico. Utilizaram-se 60 neoplasias mamárias, divididas em grupos (grupo 1 -benigno, e grupo 2 -maligno). Avaliaram-se dados do histórico reprodutivo, o exame físico e achados histopatológicos e imunoistoquímicos para fator de crescimento endotelial vascular. Ao estudo do histórico reprodutivo, encontraram-se 90% dos animais com irregularidade de cio, 86,63% das cadelas não foram medicadas com contraceptivos e 83,33% não eram castradas. Ao exame físico, não foi verificada diferença (p>0,05) entre grupos ao se avaliar consistência das massas, regularidade da superfície tumoral e localização anatômica dos tumores. Quanto ao tamanho das massas, verificou-se diferença entre os grupos (p=0,0077), com 0,78±1,13cm para o grupo 1 e 1,81±2,29cm para o grupo 2. Diagnosticaram-se 40% de massas benignas e 60% de malignas, de acordo com os tipos de neoplasias. Para VEGF, verificaram-se valores médios de 2,22±0,89 para tumores malignos e 1,66±0,91 para benignos, com diferença entre grupos (p=0,0315). As neoplasias mamárias em cadelas não apresentam características de histórico reprodutivo e de exame clínico que auxiliem o diagnóstico diferencial, sendo a histopatologia o único método para conclusão do diagnóstico e a imunoistoquímica podendo ser utilizada para prognóstico da lesão.Palavras-chave: cadelas, neoplasias mamárias, estudo clínico, histopatologia ABSTRACT
Annually hundreds of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) are referred to rehabilitation centers and zoos in Brazil. The ultrasonographic study of wildlife species is an important tool for a non-invasive and accurate anatomical description and provides important information for wildlife veterinary care. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the main abdominal organs as well as the vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) using mode B ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. Ultrasonographic features of the main abdominal organs were described and slight differences were noticed between ultrasound imaging of abdominal organs of crab-eating foxes and other species. The bladder presented wall thickness of 12±0.01mm, with three defined layers. Both, the right and left kidneys presented corticomedullary ratio of 1:1 and similarly to the adrenals and the liver, they were homogeneous and hypoechoic compared to the spleen. The spleen was homogeneous and hyperechoic compared to the kidneys. The stomach presented 3 to 5 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 39±0.05mm and lumen and mucosa with hyperechoic and hypoechoic features, respectively. Small and large intestines presented 2 to 3 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 34±0.03mm and three defined layers with hyperechogenic (submucosa and serosa) and hypoechogenic (muscular) features. Ovaries of the female crab-eating fox were hypoechoic compared to the spleen and with heterogeneous parenchyma due to the presence of 2x2mm ovarian follicles. Prostates of the six males were regular and with a well defined boundary, with a homogeneous and hyperechoic parenchyma compared to the spleen. Vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta (PSV: 25.60±0.32cm/s; EDV: 6.96±1.68cm/s; PI: 1.15±0.07 e RI: 0.73±0.07) and right (PSV: 23.08±3.34cm/s; EDV: 9.33±2.36cm/s; PI: 1.01±0.65 e RI: 0.65±0.16) and left renal arteries (PSV: 23.74±3.94cm/s; EDV: 9.07±3.02cm/s; PI: 1.04±0.31 e RI: 0.64±0.10) were determined. Thus, conventional and Doppler ultrasonographic imaging provides basic information that can be used as reference for the species as well for other wild canids and it is a precise and non-invasive method that can be safely used to evaluate and diagnose abdominal injuries in these patients. RESUMO.-[Ultrassonografia abdominal modo B e Doppler em cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous).]O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os achados ultrassonográficos convencionais dos principais órgãos abdominais e determinar com a utilização da ultrassonografia Doppler os índices vasculares da aorta abdominal e artérias renais em cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous). Foram avaliados nove cachorros-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous). Por meio da ultrassonografia convencional do abdômen dos animais, estudaram-se os achados ultrassonográficos normais e a biometria dos principais órgãos dessa cavidade como fígado, baço, bexiga, estômago, intestinos, adrenais, rins, ovários, prósta-ta e tec...
Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets
The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy, the learning curve and associated technical difficulties oflaparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) in sheep. Ten ovum pick-up sessions were performed in six Santa Ines sheep during a cycle of 7-day intervals, totaling 60 laparoscopic procedures. The sheep were managed for synchronizationof the estrous cycle. The laparoscopic approach was carried out using three ports. The number of follicles viewed, aspirated follicles and oocytes recovered were 13.32 ± 2.8, 11.37 ± 2.8 and 6.36 ± 2.0, respectively. Total operation time was used to assess the learning curve among 10 laparoscopic sessions. Mean surgical time was relatively short (26.75 ± 9.6 minutes). Surgical time decreased from the first session on (P < 0.05). LOPU was demonstrated to be a procedure with little intercurrence and with a short learning curve. Others studies regarding this technique should be performed to minimize possible complications and enabling its use in the field
The aim of this study was to determine the profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokines and KC-like cells (natural killer) in pregnant bitches, unpublished values for the species. A total of 27 females of the Shi Tzu, Pug, English Bulldog and French breeds, weighing 4-20kg and aged 4-6 years were used. Blood samples were collected from bitches during the anestrous and on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th week of pregnancy. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by panel MILLIPLEX MAP (CCYTO-90K, MILLIPORE, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA) validated for dogs. Twenty four females showed physiological pregnancy and three bitches showed pathological pregnancy. There was no difference between cytokine values during anestrous and gestational weeks of bitches (P>0.05). However, it was possible to verify the physiological behavior of serum levels during modulation of immune response in the gestational process of animals. In animals with gestational disorders, abnormal values for IL-2, IL-4 and INF-y were noted. It was concluded that serum levels of cytokines evaluated in pregnant bitches can help the better understanding of physiological and pathological gestational processes and correlated immunology in this species.Keywords: dog, immunity, pregnancy RESUMO Objetivou-se por meio deste estudo determinar o perfil das citocinas IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α e células KC-like
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