Objective: Evaluating the evidence of hypertension prevalence among indigenous populations in Brazil through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A search was performed by two reviewers, with no restriction of date or language in the databases of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Virtual Health Library and Capes Journal Portal. Also, a meta-regression model was designed in which the last collection year of each study was used as a moderating variable. Results: 23 articles were included in the review. No hypertension was found in indigenous populations in 10 studies, and its prevalence was increasing and varied, reaching levels of up to 29.7%. Combined hypertension prevalence in Indigenous from the period of 1970 to 2014 was 6.2% (95% CI, 3.1% -10.3%). In the regression, the value of the odds ratio was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.07 -1.18; p <0.0001), indicating a 12% increase every year in the probability of an indigenous person presenting hypertension. Conclusion: There has been a constant increase in prevalence despite the absence of hypertension in about half of the studies, probably due to changes in cultural, economic and lifestyle habits, resulting from indigenous interaction with non-indigenous society. DESCRIPTORSHypertension; Indigenous Population; Prevalence; Review.Hypertension prevalence among indigenous populations in Brazil: a systematic review with meta-analysis Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em indígenas do Brasil: uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise Prevalencia de hipertensión arterial en indígenas de Brasil: una revisión sistemática con meta-análisis
BackgroundThe Brazilian indigenous population is currently undergoing a process of epidemiological transition regarding the occurrence of communicable diseases, malnutrition and non-communicable chronic diseases. Chronic non-infectious diseases are the most common causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, the main objective of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, with an emphasis on hypertension, in the Mura Indians living in the municipality of Autazes in the northern Brazilian state of Amazonas.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted among 455 natives (57.8% women, 42.2 ± 16.7 years) selected by simple random sampling. Sociodemographic variables, habits and lifestyles, anthropometric data, fasting glycaemia and lipid profiles were evaluated. Blood pressure was measured with a validated automatic device. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were considered significant.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension was 26.6%. The other cardiovascular risk factors were as follows: increased waist-hip ratio (85.1%); increased neck circumference (60.2%); increased waist circumference (48.6%); overweight (57.1%); physical inactivity (52.7%); use of alcoholic beverages (40.2%); high total cholesterol (27.5%); increased triglycerides (23.5%); smoking (20.4%); and diabetes mellitus (3.0%). In relation to non-hypertensive individuals, indigenous hypertensive individuals were (p ≤ 0.05) older and had a higher proportion of individuals living with partners and individuals who were retired, as well as a lower level of schooling and higher family income. The indigenous people living in urban areas had a higher prevalence of hypertension than did those living in rural areas. In relation to habits and lifestyles, hypertensive Indians had a lower prevalence of smoking, higher frequency of the use of animal fat during meal preparation, lower frequency of vegetable oil use and lower frequency of salt addition to already-prepared meals. An assessment of anthropometric variables and laboratory markers showed that the hypertensive indigenous individuals had higher values of body mass index, neck circumference, waist circumference, visceral fat, Conicity Index, and body fat than did the non-hypertensive individuals.ConclusionThe prevalence of hypertension and other important cardiovascular risk factors in the Mura Indians was high. This finding is probably due to the adoption of inappropriate habits and lifestyles.
ResumoObjetivo: identificar o conhecimento dos idosos, participantes do parque municipal do idoso (Manaus -Brasil), sobre os sinais e sintomas da depressão. Métodos: estudo descritivo, de abordagem quantitativa, realizado em 2015, com 306 idosos participantes ativos das atividades do parque, para a coleta de dados foi desenvolvido um questionário composto de duas partes: a primeira de dados sociodemográficos e a segunda constituída de sentenças baseadas na escala de Yesavage, alternadas com frases não relacionadas à depressão, onde o idoso, com base em seu julgamento, circulava as alternativas relacionadas à doença. Resultados: A amostra foi composta, em sua maioria, pelo gênero feminino, aposentados, grande parte com até um salário mínimo, ensino fundamental até a quinta série, cristãos, procedentes da região norte do país. Do total dos 306 participantes, 245 idosos nunca receberam o diagnóstico de depressão, 203 conheceram alguém acometido pela doença e 130 idosos apresentaram conhecimento intermediário em relação à depressão, caracterizando o maior grupo. Apesar da pontuação, os idosos lançam mão do conhecimento empírico, o que não contribui com sua verdadeira autonomia e envelhecimento ativo. Conclusão: É necessário que o enfermeiro e a equipe de saúde utilizem a educação em saúde na construção de conhecimento e auxílio aos idosos na promoção da qualidade de vida.
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