IMPORTANCE It is uncertain whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke than would be expected from a viral respiratory infection. OBJECTIVE To compare the rate of ischemic stroke between patients with COVID-19 and patients with influenza, a respiratory viral illness previously associated with stroke.
The results of this large, contemporary, multi-institutional series show that radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy provide durable local control and disease specific survival in patients with localized invasive transitional cell carcinoma.
This guideline represents an evidence-based approach to FN specific to children with cancer. Although some recommendations are similar to adult-based guidelines, there are key distinctions in multiple areas. Implementation will require adaptation to the local context.
Magnetic susceptibility of MS lesions increased rapidly as it changed from enhanced to nonenhanced, it attained a high susceptibility value relative to NAWM during its initial few years (approximately 4 years), and it gradually dissipated back to susceptibility similar to that of NAWM as it aged, which may provide new insight into pathophysiologic features of MS lesions. Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Mice heterozygous for targeted disruption of Pthrp exhibit, by 3 months of age, diminished bone volume and skeletal microarchitectural changes indicative of advanced osteoporosis. Impaired bone formation arising from decreased BM precursor cell recruitment and increased apoptotic death of osteoblastic cells was identified as the underlying mechanism for low bone mass. The osteoporotic phenotype was recapitulated in mice with osteoblast-specific targeted disruption of Pthrp, generated using Cre-LoxP technology, and defective bone formation was reaffirmed as the underlying etiology. Daily administration of the 1-34 amino-terminal fragment of parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34) to Pthrp +/-mice resulted in profound improvement in all parameters of skeletal microarchitecture, surpassing the improvement observed in treated WT littermates. These findings establish a pivotal role for osteoblast-derived PTH-related protein (PTHrP) as a potent endogenous bone anabolic factor that potentiates bone formation by altering osteoblast recruitment and survival and whose level of expression in the bone microenvironment influences the therapeutic efficacy of exogenous PTH 1-34.
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