Microbes drive most ecosystems and are modulated by viruses that impact their lifespan, gene flow and metabolic outputs. However, ecosystem-level impacts of viral community diversity remains difficult to assess due to classification issues and few reference genomes. Here we establish a ~12-fold expanded global ocean DNA virome dataset of 195,728 60 viral populations, now including the Arctic Ocean, and validate that these populations form discrete genotypic clusters. Meta-community analyses revealed five ecological zones throughout the global ocean, including two distinct Arctic regions. Across the zones, local and global patterns and drivers in viral community diversity were established for both macrodiversity (interpopulation diversity) and microdiversity (intra-population genetic variation). These patterns 65 sometimes, but not always, paralleled those from macro-organisms and revealed temperate and tropical surface waters and the Arctic as biodiversity hotspots and mechanistic hypotheses to explain them. Such further understanding of ocean viruses is critical for broader inclusion in ecosystem models. Introduction: 70Biodiversity is essential for maintaining ecosystem functions and services (reviewed by Tilman et al., 2014). In the oceans, the vast majority of biodiversity is contained within the microbial fraction containing prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes, which represents ~60% of its biomass (Bar-On et al., 2018). Meta-analyses looking at changes in marine biodiversity show that biodiversity loss increasingly impairs the ocean's capacity to produce food, maintain water 75 quality, and recover from perturbations (Worm et al., 2006). To date, marine conservation efforts have focused on specific organismal communities, such as fisheries or coral reefs, rather than conserving whole ecosystem biodiversity. However, emerging studies across diverse sampled, global-scale, viruses-to-fish-larvae datasets (de Vargas et al., 2015; Sunagawa et al., 125 2015;Brum et al., 2015;Lima-Mendez et al., 2015;Pesant et al. 2015;Roux et al., 2016), and help establish foundational ecological hypotheses for the field and a roadmap for the broader life sciences community to better study viruses in complex communities. Results & Discussion:The dataset. The Global Ocean Viromes 2.0 (GOV 2.0) dataset is derived from 3.95 Tb 130 of sequencing across 145 samples distributed throughout the world's oceans ( Fig. 1A and Table S3; see Methods). These data build on the prior GOV dataset (Roux et al., 2016) by increased sequencing for mesopelagic samples (defined in our dataset as waters between 150m to 1,000m) and upgrading assemblies, both of which drastically improved sampling of the ocean viruses in these samples (results below). Additionally, we added 41 new samples derived from the Tara 135Oceans Polar Circle (TOPC) expedition, which traveled 25,000 km around the Arctic Ocean in 2013. These 41 Arctic Ocean viromes were generated to represent the most significantly climateimpacted region of the ocean, and an extreme environment. N...
The gut microbiome profoundly affects human health and disease, and their infecting viruses are likely as important, but often missed because of reference database limitations. Here, we (1) built a human Gut Virome Database (GVD) from 2,697 viral particle or microbial metagenomes from 1,986 individuals representing 16 countries, (2) assess its effectiveness, and (3) report a meta-analysis that reveals age-dependent patterns across healthy Westerners. The GVD contains 33,242 unique viral populations (approximately species-level taxa) and improves average viral detection rates over viral RefSeq and IMG/VR nearly 182-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. GVD meta-analyses show highly personalized viromes, reveal that inter-study variability from technical artifacts is larger than any ''disease'' effect at the population level, and document how viral diversity changes from human infancy into senescence. Together, this compact foundational resource, these standardization guidelines, and these meta-analysis findings provide a systematic toolkit to help maximize our understanding of viral roles in health and disease.
As global temperatures rise, large amounts of carbon sequestered in permafrost are becoming available for microbial degradation. Accurate prediction of carbon gas emissions from thawing permafrost is limited by our understanding of these microbial communities. Here we use metagenomic sequencing of 214 samples from a permafrost thaw gradient to recover 1,529 metagenome-assembled genomes, including many from phyla with poor genomic representation. These genomes reflect the diversity of this complex ecosystem, with genus-level representatives for more than sixty per cent of the community. Meta-omic analysis revealed key populations involved in the degradation of organic matter, including bacteria whose genomes encode a previously undescribed fungal pathway for xylose degradation. Microbial and geochemical data highlight lineages that correlate with the production of greenhouse gases and indicate novel syntrophic relationships. Our findings link changing biogeochemistry to specific microbial lineages involved in carbon processing, and provide key information for predicting the effects of climate change on permafrost systems.
SummaryOcean microbial communities strongly influence the biogeochemistry, food webs, and climate of our planet. Despite recent advances in understanding their taxonomic and genomic compositions, little is known about how their transcriptomes vary globally. Here, we present a dataset of 187 metatranscriptomes and 370 metagenomes from 126 globally distributed sampling stations and establish a resource of 47 million genes to study community-level transcriptomes across depth layers from pole-to-pole. We examine gene expression changes and community turnover as the underlying mechanisms shaping community transcriptomes along these axes of environmental variation and show how their individual contributions differ for multiple biogeochemically relevant processes. Furthermore, we find the relative contribution of gene expression changes to be significantly lower in polar than in non-polar waters and hypothesize that in polar regions, alterations in community activity in response to ocean warming will be driven more strongly by changes in organismal composition than by gene regulatory mechanisms.Video Abstract
SummaryThe ocean is home to myriad small planktonic organisms that underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems. However, their spatial patterns of diversity and the underlying drivers remain poorly known, precluding projections of their responses to global changes. Here we investigate the latitudinal gradients and global predictors of plankton diversity across archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and major virus clades using both molecular and imaging data from Tara Oceans. We show a decline of diversity for most planktonic groups toward the poles, mainly driven by decreasing ocean temperatures. Projections into the future suggest that severe warming of the surface ocean by the end of the 21st century could lead to tropicalization of the diversity of most planktonic groups in temperate and polar regions. These changes may have multiple consequences for marine ecosystem functioning and services and are expected to be particularly significant in key areas for carbon sequestration, fisheries, and marine conservation.Video Abstract
Background Viruses are a significant player in many biosphere and human ecosystems, but most signals remain “hidden” in metagenomic/metatranscriptomic sequence datasets due to the lack of universal gene markers, database representatives, and insufficiently advanced identification tools. Results Here, we introduce VirSorter2, a DNA and RNA virus identification tool that leverages genome-informed database advances across a collection of customized automatic classifiers to improve the accuracy and range of virus sequence detection. When benchmarked against genomes from both isolated and uncultivated viruses, VirSorter2 uniquely performed consistently with high accuracy (F1-score > 0.8) across viral diversity, while all other tools under-detected viruses outside of the group most represented in reference databases (i.e., those in the order Caudovirales). Among the tools evaluated, VirSorter2 was also uniquely able to minimize errors associated with atypical cellular sequences including eukaryotic genomes and plasmids. Finally, as the virosphere exploration unravels novel viral sequences, VirSorter2’s modular design makes it inherently able to expand to new types of viruses via the design of new classifiers to maintain maximal sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion With multi-classifier and modular design, VirSorter2 demonstrates higher overall accuracy across major viral groups and will advance our knowledge of virus evolution, diversity, and virus-microbe interaction in various ecosystems. Source code of VirSorter2 is freely available (https://bitbucket.org/MAVERICLab/virsorter2), and VirSorter2 is also available both on bioconda and as an iVirus app on CyVerse (https://de.cyverse.org/de).
Microbial and viral communities transform the chemistry of Earth's ecosystems, yet the specific reactions catalyzed by these biological engines are hard to decode due to the absence of a scalable, metabolically resolved, annotation software. Here, we present DRAM (Distilled and Refined Annotation of Metabolism), a framework to translate the deluge of microbiome-based genomic information into a catalog of microbial traits. To demonstrate the applicability of DRAM across metabolically diverse genomes, we evaluated DRAM performance on a defined, in silico soil community and previously published human gut metagenomes. We show that DRAM accurately assigned microbial contributions to geochemical cycles and automated the partitioning of gut microbial carbohydrate metabolism at substrate levels. DRAM-v, the viral mode of DRAM, established rules to identify virally-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs), resulting in the metabolic categorization of thousands of putative AMGs from soils and guts. Together DRAM and DRAM-v provide critical metabolic profiling capabilities that decipher mechanisms underpinning microbiome function.
Ocean viruses are abundant and infect 20-40% of surface microbes. Infected cells, termed virocells, are thus a predominant microbial state. Yet, virocells and their ecosystem impacts are understudied, thus precluding their incorporation into ecosystem models. Here we investigated how unrelated bacterial viruses (phages) reprogram one host into contrasting virocells with different potential ecosystem footprints. We independently infected the marine Pseudoalteromonas bacterium with siphovirus PSA-HS2 and podovirus PSA-HP1. Time-resolved multi-omics unveiled drastically different metabolic reprogramming and resource requirements by each virocell, which were related to phage-host genomic complementarity and viral fitness. Namely, HS2 was more complementary to the host in nucleotides and amino acids, and fitter during infection than HP1. Functionally, HS2 virocells hardly differed from uninfected cells, with minimal host metabolism impacts. HS2 virocells repressed energy-consuming metabolisms, including motility and translation. Contrastingly, HP1 virocells substantially differed from uninfected cells. They repressed host transcription, responded to infection continuously, and drastically reprogrammed resource acquisition, central carbon and energy metabolisms. Ecologically, this work suggests that one cell, infected versus uninfected, can have immensely different metabolisms that affect the ecosystem differently. Finally, we relate phage-host genome complementarity, virocell metabolic reprogramming, and viral fitness in a conceptual model to guide incorporating viruses into ecosystem models.
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