The ever-increasing demand for passenger air traffic results in larger airline fleets every year. The aircraft market forecast reveals an unprecedented growth for the coming decades, leading to serious environmental and economic concerns among airlines and regulatory bodies. Different approaches, for both airborne and ground operations, have been proposed to reduce and control emissions without compromising profit margin. For on-ground activities, the electric taxiing (ET) methodology is one of the suggested solutions for reducing the emissions and the acoustic noise in the airport, and for lowering the fuel consumption and operating costs. This paper thus aims to review and collate the more important literature related to electric taxiing systems (ETSs), in order to draw an inclusive picture regarding the current state of the art of a moving and growing sector that just started its first steps towards an ambitious target. After introducing the general concept of ET, elaborations on the benefits and challenges of available technologies are done with a detailed comparison of the different systems. Finally, recommendations for future research and outlook on ET are presented.
The aviation industry represents an ever-expanding economy and the aircraft market forecast reveals an optimistic growth for the coming decades. New requirements and guidelines call for a more efficient, reliable, and environment friendly aircraft operations during both airborne and ground phases. Considering on-ground operations, the electric taxiing is one of the suggested solutions for reducing the emissions and the acoustic noise in the airport, and for lowering the fuel consumption and the flight costs. This paper provides an overview of the most important existing electric taxiing systems and also presents the basic concepts related to it. Finally, detailed comparison of the different systems is given with recommendations for the future research.
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is one of the most suitable controllers for industrial applications, especially for constrained systems. However, it requires high computational burden, which is considered as the main drawback. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller is the most widely used controller in particular for Single Input Single Output (SISO) system and for cascaded control loops, but it is difficult to be tuned especially for a constrained system. Therefore, a combination of PID and MPC is addressed. The basic concept of the proposed technique concentrates on the tuning of PID controller gains based on the MPC performance for the closed loop system considering constraints, which will be applied in a control system consisting of two hierarchical levels structure. The algorithm is applied to control the speed of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), which is considered as Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) system.
This paper deals with the design of a high powerdensity, high efficiency and low torque ripple propulsion motor for electric aircraft. The proposed design procedure resulted in a high-performance propulsion motor intended for a direct-drive solution on an 8-12 passenger commercial aircraft with a range up to 1000 miles. The electromagnetic design is firstly addressed and then the thermal management is discussed. A set of design development steps are investigated and validated through finiteelement software, involving studies for the optimal selection of the of air gap diameter and the slot/pole combination, followed by improving the efficiency by suitable material selection and methods for losses mitigation. Finally, in order to prove the enhancement of power density and efficiency through this feasibility design study, the designed propulsion motor performance is compared to the state-of-the-art motors of similar direct-drive aircraft propulsion systems.
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