Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an example of a disease contributing to more and more frequent deaths all over the world. As far as the mortality rate is concerned, COPR is in fourth position. However, predictions about the next decade reveal a further worsening of the death rate from this disease. The factors which contribute to the development of COPD are individual and environmental. The most important individual factor is alpha1- antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). The environmental factors include smoking, pollution of work environment in terms of dust and chemicals, air pollution. Other reasons for the development of COPD are recurrent pulmonary and respiratory infections in early childhood as well passive smoking.
Among diseases of the 21st century, intestinal tumours are frequently mentioned. Colon cancer is a serious and growing health problem not only in Poland, but also in the world. As the most common result of fighting for one's own health and often even life is the consent to the intestinal stoma. Intestinal stoma is made by exteriorisation of the preserved intestinal end by abdominal incision outside the abdominal cavity, the incision of the mucous membrane and suturing it to the skin. The three main groups of indications for exteriorisation of stoma are: (a) inflammatory disease of intestines, (b) colitis, rectal and colonic trauma, (c) colorectal cancer. Properly exteriorised stoma on the large intestine should be located on the smooth surface of the skin away from the navel, hip bone, skin folds, scars and also at least 4 cm away from the main surgical cut. Patients should see the fistula well because it is the basis of proper self-care. Dermatological complications are the most common complication of stoma and occur in nearly 80% of patients. It comes to them as a result of irritation of the skin by the intestinal contents that come out of it and causes inflammation. This is usually the result of incorrect stoma care or improper use of stoma equipment. Despite medical advances towards minimizing invasive procedures and limiting the severity of the disease, the problem of the great stress experienced by every person undergoing surgical treatment is still valid and relevant to the outcome of the whole therapy. Choosing intestinal stoma is one of the most stressful treatments, so in this case, not only medical care but also psychological over the patient seems to be a priority.
The tests used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be divided into three groups. These a functional examination, imaging examinations and other tests helpful in the assessment of the disease's advancement. The basic test for suspicion of COPD is spirometry. It can be used to assess lung function noninvasively and quickly. Spirometry allows evaluation of volume components and components of air flow velocity in the lungs. Blood gas measurement is also helpful. Imaging examinations used in the diagnosis of COPD include chest radiograph and computed tomography. The results of these studies show above all the advancement of emphysema and the location of airspace. Additional tests to help diagnose COPD include electrocardiography, echocardiography, morphology and sputum culture. Their results, even though they do not give a clear diagnosis of COPD, can facilitate to make a correct diagnosis.
Wiedza pacjentów na temat wirusa opryszczki pospolitej Knowledge of patients on herpes simplex virus Streszczenie. Wirus opryszczki pospolitej rozpowszechniony jest na wszystkich kontynentach a zakażenie nim dotyczy nawet 90% populacji ludzkiej. Ponieważ zakażenie nim ze względu na drogi szerzenia (ślina, kontakty płciowe) jest powszechne w populacji stanowi on poważny problem zdrowotny. Mając na uwadze, że choroba może się manifestować na wiele różnych sposobów doprowadzając nawet do ciężkich stanów jak zapalenie opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych lub mózgu niezwykle istotne jest edukowanie społeczeństwa na temat tych zagrożeń. W celu zbadania wiedzy pacjentów gabinetów stomatologicznych na temat opryszczki przeprowadzony został sondaż ankietowy, w którym uczestniczyło 50 respondentów. Pytania dotyczyły następujących zagadnień: Jaki jest poziom wiedzy pacjentów na temat opryszczki wargowej? Czy chorzy konsultują się w sprawie opryszczki wargowej z lekarzem? Jeśli nie, jak poszerzają swoją wiedzę na ten temat? Czy pa-
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