IntroductionPrimary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired immunemediated disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia, defined as a peripheral blood platelet count less than 100 ϫ 10 9 /L, and the absence of any obvious initiating and/or underlying cause of the thrombocytopenia. 1 Until recently, the abbreviation ITP stood for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, but current awareness relating to the immune-mediated nature of the disease, and the absence or minimal signs of bleeding in a large proportion of cases have led to a revision of the terminology. 1 Concepts surrounding the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in ITP have shifted from the traditional view of increased platelet destruction mediated by autoantibodies to more complex mechanisms in which both impaired platelet production and T cell-mediated effects play a role.  Recent epidemiologic data suggest that the incidence in adults is approximately equal for the sexes except in the mid-adult years (30-60 years), when the disease is more prevalent in women. 7,8 ITP is classified by duration into newly diagnosed, persistent (3-12 months' duration) and chronic (Ն 12 months' duration). 1 Whereas ITP in adults typically has an insidious onset with no preceding viral or other illness and it normally follows a chronic course, 9 ITP in children is usually short-lived with at least two-thirds recovering spontaneously within 6 months. 10 Signs and symptoms vary widely. Many patients have either no symptoms or minimal bruising, whereas others experience serious bleeding, which may include gastrointestinal hemorrhage (GI), extensive skin and mucosal hemorrhage, or intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The severity of thrombocytopenia correlates to some extent but not completely with the bleeding risk. 7,11 Additional factors (eg, age, lifestyle factors, uremia) affect the risk and should be evaluated before the appropriate management is determined.The investigation and management of ITP patients vary widely. The purpose of this consensus document is to comment on new data and provide recommendations relating to diagnosis and treatment. Final judgment regarding care of individual patients should, however, lie with the responsible health care professional and be based on careful investigation of individual circumstances. MethodsComposition of the panel. The panel included 22 members with recognized clinical and research expertise in ITP representing North America (United States, 7; Canada, 1), Europe (France, 1; Italy, 2; Spain, 1; Switzerland, 1; United Kingdom, 8), and Australia (1).Assessment of the literature. Articles were identified by a computer-assisted search of the literature published in English using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database. The For personal use only. on May 7, 2018. by guest www.bloodjournal.org From search criteria were: 'immune thrombocytopenic purpura', 'idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura', 'ITP', and 'autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura'. A subsequent search was performed using the corresponding MedLin...
Over the last decade, there have been numerous developments and changes in treatment practices for the management of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This article is an update of the International Consensus Report published in 2010. A critical review was performed to identify all relevant articles published between 2009 and 2018. An expert panel screened, reviewed, and graded the studies and formulated the updated consensus recommendations based on the new data. The final document provides consensus recommendations on the diagnosis and management of ITP in adults, during pregnancy, and in children, as well as quality-of-life considerations.
SummaryBackgroundLimits on the frequency of whole blood donation exist primarily to safeguard donor health. However, there is substantial variation across blood services in the maximum frequency of donations allowed. We compared standard practice in the UK with shorter inter-donation intervals used in other countries.MethodsIn this parallel group, pragmatic, randomised trial, we recruited whole blood donors aged 18 years or older from 25 centres across England, UK. By use of a computer-based algorithm, men were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 12-week (standard) versus 10-week versus 8-week inter-donation intervals, and women were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 16-week (standard) versus 14-week versus 12-week intervals. Participants were not masked to their allocated intervention group. The primary outcome was the number of donations over 2 years. Secondary outcomes related to safety were quality of life, symptoms potentially related to donation, physical activity, cognitive function, haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations, and deferrals because of low haemoglobin. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN24760606, and is ongoing but no longer recruiting participants.Findings45 263 whole blood donors (22 466 men, 22 797 women) were recruited between June 11, 2012, and June 15, 2014. Data were analysed for 45 042 (99·5%) participants. Men were randomly assigned to the 12-week (n=7452) versus 10-week (n=7449) versus 8-week (n=7456) groups; and women to the 16-week (n=7550) versus 14-week (n=7567) versus 12-week (n=7568) groups. In men, compared with the 12-week group, the mean amount of blood collected per donor over 2 years increased by 1·69 units (95% CI 1·59–1·80; approximately 795 mL) in the 8-week group and by 0·79 units (0·69–0·88; approximately 370 mL) in the 10-week group (p<0·0001 for both). In women, compared with the 16-week group, it increased by 0·84 units (95% CI 0·76–0·91; approximately 395 mL) in the 12-week group and by 0·46 units (0·39–0·53; approximately 215 mL) in the 14-week group (p<0·0001 for both). No significant differences were observed in quality of life, physical activity, or cognitive function across randomised groups. However, more frequent donation resulted in more donation-related symptoms (eg, tiredness, breathlessness, feeling faint, dizziness, and restless legs, especially among men [for all listed symptoms]), lower mean haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations, and more deferrals for low haemoglobin (p<0·0001 for each) than those observed in the standard frequency groups.InterpretationOver 2 years, more frequent donation than is standard practice in the UK collected substantially more blood without having a major effect on donors' quality of life, physical activity, or cognitive function, but resulted in more donation-related symptoms, deferrals, and iron deficiency.FundingNHS Blood and Transplant, National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, and British Heart Foundation.
SummaryRomiplostim was effective, safe, and well-tolerated over 6-12 months of continuous treatment in Phase 3 trials in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This report describes up to 5 years of weekly treatment with romiplostim in 292 adult ITP patients in a long-term, single-arm, open-label study. Outcome measures included adverse events (including bleeding, thrombosis, malignancy, and reticulin/fibrosis), platelet response (platelet count >50 9 10 9 per litre), and the proportion of patients requiring rescue treatments. Treatment-related serious adverse events were infrequent and did not increase with longer treatment. No new classes of adverse events emerged. Thrombotic events occurred in 6Á5% of patients and were not associated with platelet count. Median platelet counts of 50-200 9 10 9 per litre were maintained with stable doses of romiplostim (mean 5-8 lg/kg; generally self-administered at home) throughout the study. A platelet response was achieved at least once by 95% of patients, with a platelet response maintained by all patients on a median 92% of study visits. There was a low rate of bleeding and infrequent need for rescue treatments. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that romiplostim was safe and well-tolerated over 614 patient-years of exposure in ITP patients, and that efficacy was maintained with stable dosing for up to 5 years of continuous treatment.
Whether the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection can increase the platelet count in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is still a controversial issue. To provide evidence-based guidance, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in English, selecting articles reporting 15 or more total patients. We identified 25 studies including 1555 patients, of whom 696 were evaluable for the effects of
In anecdotal reports, some patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) maintained platelet counts after discontinuing romiplostim. Here, we examined rates of platelet response (≥50 × 10(9) /l), remission, splenectomy and adverse events in patients with primary ITP duration ≤6 months who were treated with romiplostim for ≤12 months. The starting dose of romiplostim was 1 μg/kg; concomitant and rescue treatments were permitted to maintain platelet counts. Patients with platelet counts ≥50 × 10(9) /l at the end of 12 months entered a dose taper in which the romiplostim dose was decreased as long as platelet counts were maintained. Remission (platelet count ≥50 × 10(9) /l for 24 consecutive weeks with no ITP treatments) was evaluated in patients once romiplostim was discontinued. Over the 12 months, a high response rate (>90%) was observed. Platelet response occurred quickly (median, ~2 weeks) and was observed for a cumulative median of 11 months. Remission was observed in 24 patients (32%); there were no significantly predictors of remission. Most (20/24) patients had remission start before the forced taper. No new safety signals were identified. Thus, in patients with early-stage ITP, romiplostim was well tolerated and induced rapid responses, with remission occurring in approximately one-third of patients (NCT01143038, Amgen 20080435).
Summary.The pattern and the sequence of tumour necrosis factor-a (TNFa) induced cell death in the acute T-lymphoblastic leukaemic cell line CCRF-CEM and its vinblastineresistant subline CEM/VLB 100 have been studied. Previously, we found that the CEM/VLB 100 cell line was more sensitive to TNFa-induced killing than its parental CCRF-CEM cell line. TNFa-induced cell death showed an apoptotic pattern, as detected by agarose electrophoresis, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images revealed that autophagy and condensed mitochondria occurred earlier than nuclear fragmentation. The specific inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3MA), inhibited the formation of autophagosomes. TNFa-induced DNA fragmentation and cytolysis were completely inhibited by 10 mM 3MA. Inhibition of the fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes by asparagine did not block TNFa-induced apoptosis. In addition, amino acid and protein deprivation enhanced TNFa-induced autophagy but not apoptosis. We propose that the early stages of autophagy are required for, but do not necessarily result in, TNFa-induced apoptosis.
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