Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) represents cerebral parenchymal bleeding that may also extend into ventricular, and rarely, subarachnoid space. As a stroke subtype, it is associated with poor neurological outcome as well as high mortality. The worldwide incidence of ICH ranges from 10 to 20 cases per 100,000 population and increases with age. Different risk factors can cause ICH: hypertension (the main and the most common risk factor), cerebral amyloid angiopathy, previous use of anticoagulant therapy, excessive use of alcohol, and also other risk factors such as serum cholesterol levels and some genetic factors. Its clinical presentation usually consist of a decreased level of consciousness with headache and vomiting (in patients with a large hematoma), and depending on localization some specific neurological signs could be present: contralateral sensory-motor deficits of varying severity, aphasia, neglect, gaze deviation, hemianopsia, abnormalities of gaze, cranial-nerve abnormalities, as well as ataxia, nystagmus, and dysmetria.Emergency diagnosis and management in neurological intensive care, or stroke units, with hypertension treatment, administration of haemostatic agents and general therapeutic measures for critically ill neurological patients may positively influence the outcome. Nevertheless, a larger number of randomized controlled studies are needed to answer several important questions, including how to treat hypertension, which haemostatic agent to use, as well as determining place and time of surgical treatment. LJILJANA BESLA]-BUMBA[IREVI] VI[NJA PA\EN DEJANA R. JOVANOVI] MAJA STEFANOVI]-BUDIMKI]
Intracerebral haemorrhage is an important public health problem leading to high rates of death and disability in adults. Although the number of hospital admissions for intracerebral haemorrhage has increased worldwide in the past 10 years, mortality has not fallen. Results of clinical trials and observational studies suggest that coordinated primary and specialty care is associated with lower mortality than is typical community practice. Development of treatment goals for critical care, and new sequences of care and specialty practice can improve outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage. Specific treatment approaches include early diagnosis and haemostasis, aggressive management of blood pressure, open surgical and minimally invasive surgical techniques to remove clot, techniques to remove intraventricular blood, and management of intracranial pressure. These approaches improve clinical management of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and promise to reduce mortality and increase functional survival.
Purpose-Our goal is to provide an overview of the current evidence about components of the evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audience is physicians and other emergency healthcare providers who treat patients within the first 48 hours after stroke. In addition, information for healthcare policy makers is included. Key Words: AHA Scientific Statements Ⅲ emergency medical services Ⅲ stroke Ⅲ acute cerebral infarction Ⅲ tissue plasminogen activator †Deceased. The American Heart Association makes every effort to avoid any actual or potential conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of an outside relationship or a personal, professional, or business interest of a member of the writing panel. Specifically, all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit a Disclosure Questionnaire showing all such relationships that might be perceived as real or potential conflicts of interest.
Limited data are available to guide the choice of a target for the systolic blood-pressure level when treating acute hypertensive response in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
We randomly assigned eligible participants with intracerebral hemorrhage (volume, <60 cm3) and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 5 or more (on a scale from 3 to 15, with lower scores indicating worse condition) to a systolic blood-pressure target of 110 to 139 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of 140 to 179 mm Hg (standard treatment) in order to test the superiority of intensive reduction of systolic blood pressure to standard reduction; intravenous nicardipine to lower blood pressure was administered within 4.5 hours after symptom onset. The primary outcome was death or disability (modified Rankin scale score of 4 to 6, on a scale ranging from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 3 months after randomization, as ascertained by an investigator who was unaware of the treatment assignments.
Among 1000 participants with a mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure of 200.6±27.0 mm Hg at baseline, 500 were assigned to intensive treatment and 500 to standard treatment. The mean age of the patients was 61.9 years, and 56.2% were Asian. Enrollment was stopped because of futility after a prespecified interim analysis. The primary outcome of death or disability was observed in 38.7% of the participants (186 of 481) in the intensive-treatment group and in 37.7% (181 of 480) in the standard-treatment group (relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.27; analysis was adjusted for age, initial GCS score, and presence or absence of intraventricular hemorrhage). Serious adverse events occurring within 72 hours after randomization that were considered by the site investigator to be related to treatment were reported in 1.6% of the patients in the intensive-treatment group and in 1.2% of those in the standard-treatment group. The rate of renal adverse events within 7 days after randomization was significantly higher in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group (9.0% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.002).
The treatment of participants with intracerebral hemorrhage to achieve a target systolic blood pressure of 110 to 139 mm Hg did not result in a lower rate of death or disability than standard reduction to a target of 140 to 179 mm Hg. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center; ATACH-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01176565.)
On 11 March 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 infection a pandemic. The risk of ischemic stroke may be higher in patients with COVID-19 infection similar to those with other respiratory tract infections. We present a comprehensive set of practice implications in a single document for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute ischemic stroke with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection.
The practice implications were prepared after review of data to reach the consensus among stroke experts from 18 countries. The writers used systematic literature reviews, reference to previously published stroke guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and when appropriate, formulate practice implications. All members of the writing group had opportunities to comment in writing on the practice implications and approved the final version of this document.
This document with consensus is divided into 18 sections. A total of 41 conclusions and practice implications have been developed. The document includes practice implications for evaluation of stroke patients with caution for stroke team members to avoid COVID-19 exposure, during clinical evaluation and performance of imaging and laboratory procedures with special considerations of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy in stroke patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection.
These practice implications with consensus based on the currently available evidence aim to guide clinicians caring for adult patients with acute ischemic stroke who are suspected of, or confirmed, with COVID-19 infection. Under certain circumstances, however, only limited evidence is available to support these practice implications, suggesting an urgent need for establishing procedures for the management of stroke patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection.
A cute hypertensive response is the elevation of blood pressure (BP) above normal and premorbid values that initially occurs within the first 24 hours of symptom onset in patients with stroke. This phenomenon was reported in Ͼ60% of patients presenting with stroke in a nationally representative study from the United States. 1 With Ϸ980 000 patients 2 admitted with stroke each year in the United States, the estimated annual prevalence of acute hypertensive response is more than half a million patients. With Ϸ15 million patients experiencing stroke worldwide each year, 3 the acute hypertensive response may be expected in Ϸ10 million patients per year. The acute hypertensive response in stroke patients is managed by a diverse group of physicians, including emergency physicians, intensivists, internists, primary care physicians, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and cardiologists. Previous audits suggest that antihypertensive agents and management strategies vary considerably and are not always consistent with recommended guidelines. 4 Data from 1181 acute ischemic stroke patients enrolled in the Project for Improvement of Stroke Care Management suggested that administration of antihypertensive medication within 24 hours in 56% of the patients was inconsistent with guidelines provided by the American Stroke Association (ASA). 5 The present review article summarizes the current concepts pertaining to treatment of the acute hypertensive response derived from recent guidelines provided by professional organizations and "best available" evidence derived from experimental and clinical studies and discusses incorporation of these concepts into clinical practice. Randomized trials, nonrandomized controlled studies, and selected observational studies were identified with multiple searches on Medline from 1980 to 2007 by cross-referencing the key words of stroke, acute hypertension, antihypertensive agents, acute stroke, and hypertension. Pertinent articles identified from bibliographies of selected articles were also reviewed. Treatment targets and strategies were identified by review of existing guidelines from professional organizations.
Definition of Acute Hypertensive ResponseThe 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement 6 and the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) 7 define hypertension on the basis of the presence of consistent BP Ն140/90 mm Hg (multiple readings on separate days). This definition of hypertension is a threshold for the use of long-term antihypertensive treatment that is supported by evidence derived from randomized trials and clinicor population-based data that demonstrate reduction in cardiovascular events with this threshold for treatment. The same definition cannot be applied in the case of acute hypertensive response, because the above-mentioned ascertainment criteria and rationale are not valid. The executive summary of the ISH statement 8 on management of BP i...
Purpose-To estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in adult patients with acute stroke in the United States (U.S.).Methods-Stroke patients were classified by initial systolic blood pressure into four categories using demographic, clinical, and treatment data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, the largest study of utilization and provision of emergency department services in the U.S. We also compared the age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted rates of elevated blood pressure strata comparable with stages 1 and 2 hypertension in the U.S. population.Results-Of the 563,704 stroke patients evaluated, initial systolic blood pressure was <140 mm Hg in 173,120 patients (31%), 140-184 mm Hg in 315,207 patients (56%), 185-219 mm Hg in 74,586 patients (13%), and ≥220 mm Hg in 791 patients (0.1%). The mean time interval between presentation and evaluation was 40 ± 55, 33 ± 39, 25 ± 27, and 5 ± 1 minutes for increasing systolic blood pressure strata (p=0.009). A 3-and 8-fold higher rate of elevated blood pressure strata was observed in acute stroke than the existing rates of stages 1 and 2 hypertension in the U.S. population. Labetalol and hydralazine were used in 6,126 (1%) and 2,262 (0.4%) patients, respectively. Thrombolytics were used in 1,283 patients (0.4%), but only in those with SBP of 140-184 mm Hg.Conclusions-In a nationally representative large dataset, elevated blood pressure was observed in over 60% of the patients presenting with stroke to the emergency department. Elevated blood pressure was associated with an earlier evaluation, however, the use of thrombolytics was restricted to ischemic stroke patients with systolic blood pressure <185 mm Hg.
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