Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in the developed world and nearly the leading cause in the developing world, is associated with systemic risk factors including hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, among others. Nonetheless, atherosclerosis remains a geometrically focal disease, preferentially affecting the outer edges of vessel bifurcations. In these predisposed areas, hemodynamic shear stress, the frictional force acting on the endothelial cell surface as a result of blood flow, is weaker than in protected regions. Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress as an important determinant of endothelial function and phenotype. Arterial-level shear stress (>15 dyne/cm2) induces endothelial quiescence and an atheroprotective gene expression profile, while low shear stress (<4 dyne/cm2), which is prevalent at atherosclerosis-prone sites, stimulates an atherogenic phenotype. The functional regulation of the endothelium by local hemodynamic shear stress provides a model for understanding the focal propensity of atherosclerosis in the setting of systemic factors and may help guide future therapeutic strategies.
The synergy between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and HIV in coinfected patients has profoundly impacted global mortality because of tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS. HIV significantly increases rates of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease, with the decline in CD4 + T cells believed to be the major causality. In this study, nonhuman primates were coinfected with Mtb and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), recapitulating human coinfection. A majority of animals exhibited rapid reactivation of Mtb replication, progressing to disseminated TB and increased SIV-associated pathology. Although a severe loss of pulmonary CD4 + T cells was observed in all coinfected macaques, a subpopulation of the animals was still able to prevent reactivation and maintain LTBI. Investigation of pulmonary immune responses and pathology in this cohort demonstrated that increased CD8 + memory T-cell proliferation, higher granzyme B production, and expanded B-cell follicles correlated with protection from reactivation. Our findings reveal mechanisms that control SIV-and TB-associated pathology. These CD4-independent protective immune responses warrant further studies in HIV coinfected humans able to control their TB infection. Moreover, these findings will provide insight into natural immunity to Mtb and will guide development of novel vaccine strategies and immunotherapies.Nonhuman primate | B cells | tuberculosis | CD4 T cells | CD8 T cells
We report here that the level of endothelin-1 (ET-1) mRNA from bovine aortic endothelial cells grown in vitro is rapidly (within 1 h of exposure) and significantly (fivefold) decreased in response to fluid shear stress of physiological magnitude. The downregulation of ET-1 mRNA occurs in a dose-dependent manner that exhibits saturation above 15 dyn/cm2. The decrease is complete prior to detectable changes in endothelial cell shape and is maintained throughout and following alignment in the direction of blood flow. Peptide levels of ET-1 secreted into the media are also reduced in response to fluid shear stress. Cyclical stretch experiments demonstrated no changes in ET-1 mRNA, while increasing media viscosity with dextran showed that the downregulation is a specific response to shear stress and not to fluid velocity. Although both pulsatile and turbulent shear stress of equal time-average magnitude elicited the same decrease in ET-1 mRNA as steady laminar shear (15 dyn/cm2), low-frequency reversing shear stress did not result in any change. These results show that the magnitude as well as the dynamic character of fluid shear stress can modulate expression of ET-1 in vascular endothelium.
Fluid shear stress has been shown to be an important regulator of vascular structure and function through its effect on the endothelial cell. We have explored the effect of shear stress on the expression of the heparin-binding growth factors platelet-derived growth factor B chain (PDGF-B) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in bovine aortic endothelial cells using a purpose-built cone-plate viscometer. Using morphometric analysis, we have mimicked the endothelial cell shape changes encountered in vivo in response to shear stress and correlated these with changes in gene expression. Steady laminar shear stress of 15 and 36 dyn/cm2 both resulted in endothelial cell shape change, but the higher shear stress induced greater and more uniform alignment in the direction of flow and nuclear protrusion after 24 h. Steady laminar shear stress of both 15 and 36 dyn/cm2 induced a significant 3.9-and 4.2-fold decrease, respectively, in PDGF-B mRNA at 9 h. In contrast, steady laminar shear of 15 dyn/cm2 induced a mild and transient 1.5-fold increase in bFGF mRNA while shear of 36 dyn/ cm2 induced a significant 4.8-fold increase at 6 h of shear which remained at 2.9-fold at 9 h. Pulsatile and turbulent shear stress showed the same effect as steady laminar shear stress (all at 15 dyn/cm2 time-average magnitude) on PDGF-B and bFGF mRNA content. Cyclic stretch (20% strain, 20/min) of cells grown on silicone substrate did not significantly affect either PDGF-B or bFGF mRNA levels. These results suggest that expression of each peptide growth factor gene is differentially regulated by fluid shear stress in the vascular endothelial cell. These results may have implications on vascular structure and function in response to hemodynamic forces and present a model for the study of transduction of mechanical stimuli into altered gene expression. (J. Clin.
Hyperperfusion syndrome is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of extracranial and intracranial angioplasty and stenting procedures. The clinical manifestations are similar to hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy; however, the prevalence may be greater in the high-risk cohort commonly referred for endovascular treatment. Our findings suggest that patients undergoing endovascular stenting procedures should be closely monitored for evidence of hyperperfusion, with careful monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, and anticoagulation. Further research is needed to confirm that cerebral hyperperfusion is the pathogenesis of this condition.
Background and Purpose-The ability to discriminate between ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms on a morphological basis may be useful in clinical risk stratification. The objective was to evaluate the importance of inflow-angle (IA), the angle separating parent vessel and aneurysm dome main axes. Methods-IA, maximal dimension, height-width ratio, and dome-neck aspect ratio were evaluated in sidewall-type aneurysms with respect to rupture status in a cohort of 116 aneurysms in 102 patients. Computational fluid dynamic analysis was performed in an idealized model with variational analysis of the effect of IA on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics. Results-Univariate analysis identified IA as significantly more obtuse in the ruptured subset (124.9°Ϯ26.5°versus105.8°Ϯ18.5°, Pϭ0.0001); similarly, maximal dimension, height-width ratio, and dome-neck aspect ratio were significantly greater in the ruptured subset; multivariate logistic regression identified only IA (Pϭ0.0158) and height-width ratio (Pϭ0.0017), but not maximal dimension or dome-neck aspect ratio, as independent discriminants of rupture status. Computational fluid dynamic analysis showed increasing IA leading to deeper migration of the flow recirculation zone into the aneurysm with higher peak flow velocities and a greater transmission of kinetic energy into the distal portion of the dome. Increasing IA resulted in higher inflow velocity and greater wall shear stress magnitude and spatial gradients in both the inflow zone and dome. Conclusions-Inflow-angle is a significant discriminant of rupture status in sidewall-type aneurysms and is associated with higher energy transmission to the dome. These results support inclusion of IA in future prospective aneurysm rupture risk assessment trials. (Stroke.
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