The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is a parasympathetic ganglion, located in the pterygopalatine fossa. The SPG block has been used for a long time for treating headaches of varying etiologies. For anesthesiologists, treating postdural puncture headaches (PDPH) has always been challenging. The epidural block patch (EBP) was the only option until researchers explored the role of the SPG block as a relatively simple and effective way to treat PDPH. Also, since the existing evidence proving the efficacy of the SPG block in PDPH is scarce, the block cannot be offered to all patients. EBP can be still considered if an SPG block is not able to alleviate pain due to PDPH.
Ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block improves the success rate in patients with radial club hands when compared with nerve stimulation in patients undergoing radial club hand correction.
The Epidural blood patch is considered the gold standard for managing postdural puncture headache when supportive measures fail. However, it is a procedure which can lead to another inadvertent dural puncture. Other potential adverse events that could occur during a blood patch are meningitis, neurological deficits, and unconsciousness. The bilateral greater occipital nerve block has been used for treating chronic headaches in patients with PDPH with a single injection. This minimally invasive, simple procedure can be considered for patients early, along with other supportive treatment, and an epidural blood patch can be avoided.
Surgical Apgar Score is a simple, 10-point scoring system in which a low score reliably identifies those patients at risk for adverse perioperative outcomes. Surgical techniques and anesthesia management should be directed in such a way that the Surgical Apgar Score remains higher to avoid postoperative morbidity and mortality.
After a quadratus lumborum (QL) block, the course of QL plane catheter is unpredictable. This case series discusses the course and fate of trans-muscular QL catheters by following and discussing the contrast spread through the fascial planes. Intrao-peratively, the catheters were tracked by the surgeons and were checked for integrity of anterior thoracolumbar fascia (ATLF) by injecting sterile 0.9% saline. The ATLF was intact upon injection and there was cephalad and medial saline spread with slight bulging of ATLF. On day 3 after written informed consent from all patients, computed tomography (CT) contrast studies were performed. Post-operative contrast spread was variable and was visualised in transversus abdominis plane, QL plane, lower thoracic paravertebral space, inter-vertebral foramina and anterior epidural space. CT contrast images demonstrated a variable spread. In conclusion, injection in ATLF of QL can spread along the path of least resistance and is unpredictable.
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