Fournier's gangrene is a urological emergency with a high mortality rate despite advances in the medical and surgical fields. The aggressive nature of the infection advocates the need for early recognition allowing immediate surgical intervention. The opposing results of available research as well as the lack of high quality evidence surrounding emergent therapies prevents their routine use in the management of Fournier's gangrene. The absence of a specific care pathway may hinder efficient management of Fournier's gangrene, thus based on current guidelines a management pathway is suggested.
To evaluate all simulation models for ophthalmology technical and non-technical skills training and the strength of evidence to support their validity and effectiveness. A systematic search was performed using PubMed and Embase for studies published from inception to 01/07/2019. Studies were analysed according to the training modality: virtual reality; wet-lab; dry-lab models; e-learning. The educational impact of studies was evaluated using Messick’s validity framework and McGaghie’s model of translational outcomes for evaluating effectiveness. One hundred and thirty-one studies were included in this review, with 93 different simulators described. Fifty-three studies were based on virtual reality tools; 47 on wet-lab models; 26 on dry-lab models; 5 on e-learning. Only two studies provided evidence for all five sources of validity assessment. Models with the strongest validity evidence were the Eyesi Surgical, Eyesi Direct Ophthalmoscope and Eye Surgical Skills Assessment Test. Effectiveness ratings for simulator models were mostly limited to level 2 (contained effects) with the exception of the Sophocle vitreoretinal surgery simulator, which was shown at level 3 (downstream effects), and the Eyesi at level 5 (target effects) for cataract surgery. A wide range of models have been described but only the Eyesi has undergone comprehensive investigation. The main weakness is in the poor quality of study design, with a predominance of descriptive reports showing limited validity evidence and few studies investigating the effects of simulation training on patient outcomes. More robust research is needed to enable effective implementation of simulation tools into current training curriculums.
With rapid advances in technology, wearable devices have evolved and been adopted for various uses, ranging from simple devices used in aiding fitness to more complex devices used in assisting surgery. Wearable technology is broadly divided into head-mounted displays and body sensors. A broad search of the current literature revealed a total of 13 different body sensors and 11 head-mounted display devices. The latter have been reported for use in surgery (n = 7), imaging (n = 3), simulation and education (n = 2) and as navigation tools (n = 1). Body sensors have been used as vital signs monitors (n = 9) and for posture-related devices for posture and fitness (n = 4). Body sensors were found to have excellent functionality in aiding patient posture and rehabilitation while head-mounted displays can provide information to surgeons to while maintaining sterility during operative procedures. There is a potential role for head-mounted wearable technology and body sensors in medicine and patient care. However, there is little scientific evidence available proving that the application of such technologies improves patient satisfaction or care. Further studies need to be conducted prior to a clear conclusion.
Background The advent of Virtual Reality technologies presents new opportunities for enhancing current surgical practice. Studies suggest that current techniques in endoscopic surgery are prone to disturbance of a surgeon's visual-motor axis, influencing performance, ergonomics and iatrogenic injury rates. The Microsoft ® HoloLens is a novel head-mounted display that has not been explored within surgical innovation research. This study aims to evaluate the HoloLens as a potential alternative to conventional monitors in endoscopic surgery. Materials and methods This prospective, observational and comparative study recruited 72 participants consisting of novices (n = 28), intermediate-level (n = 24) and experts (n = 20). Participants performed ureteroscopy, within an inflatable operating environment, using a validated training model and the HoloLens mixed-reality device as a monitor. Novices also completed the assigned task using conventional monitors; whilst the experienced groups did not, due to their extensive familiarity. Outcome measures were procedural completion time and performance evaluation (OSATS) score. A final evaluation survey was distributed amongst all participants. Results The HoloLens facilitated improved outcomes for procedural times (absolute difference, − 73 s; 95% CI − 115 to − 30; P = 0.0011) and OSAT scores (absolute difference, 4.1 points; 95% CI 2.9-5.3; P < 0.0001) compared to conventional monitors. Feedback evaluation demonstrated 97% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that the HoloLens will have a role in surgical education (mean rating, 4.6 of 5; 95% CI 4.5-4.8). Furthermore, 95% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that the HoloLens is feasible to introduce clinically and will have a role within surgery (mean rating, 4.4 of 5; 95% CI 4.2-4.5). Conclusion This study demonstrates that the device facilitated improved outcomes of performance in novices and was widely accepted as a surgical visual aid by all groups. The HoloLens represents a feasible alternative to the conventional setup, possibly by aligning the surgeon's visual-motor axis.
Simulation has become widely accepted as a supplementary method of training. Within urology, the greatest number of procedure-specific models and subsequent validation studies have been carried out in the field of endourology. Many generic-skills simulators have been created for laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgery, but only a limited number of procedure-specific models are available. By contrast, open urological simulation has only seen a handful of validated models. Of the available modalities, virtual reality (VR) simulators are most commonly used for endourology and robotic surgery training, the former also employing many high-fidelity bench models. Smaller dry-lab and ex vivo animal models have been used for laparoscopic and robotic training, whereas live animals and human cadavers are widely used for full procedural training. Newer concepts such as augmented-reality (AR) models and patient-specific simulators have also been introduced. Several curricula, including one recommended within, have been produced, incorporating various different training modalities and nontechnical skills training techniques. Such curricula and validated models should be used in a structured fashion to supplement operating room training.
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