To date, generation of single-chain fragment variable (scFv) has become an established technique used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advances in antibody engineering have now facilitated a more efficient and generally applicable method to produce Fv fragments. Basically, scFv antibodies produced from phage display can be genetically fused to the marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins or alkaline phosphatase. These bifunctional proteins having both antigen-binding capacity and marker activity can be obtained from transformed bacteria and used for one-step immunodetection of biological agents. Alternatively, antibody fragments could also be applied in the construction of immunotoxins, therapeutic gene delivery, and anticancer intrabodies for therapeutic purposes. This paper provides an overview of the current studies on the principle, generation, and application of scFv. The potential of scFv in breast cancer research is also discussed in this paper.
SummaryLow-dose exposures to common environmental chemicals that are deemed safe individually may be combining to instigate carcinogenesis, thereby contributing to the incidence of cancer. This risk may be overlooked by current regulatory practices and needs to be vigorously investigated.
Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of 13 Zingiberaceae species from the Alpinia, Costus and Zingiber genera were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activity of most of the extracts was antibacterial with only the methanol extract of Costus discolor showing very potent antifungal activity against only Aspergillus ochraceous (MID, 15.6 microg per disc). All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable with or higher that of alpha-tocopherol.
Several techniques have been devised for the dissociation of tissues for primary culture. These techniques can affect the quantity and quality of the isolated cells. The aim of our study was to develop the most appropriate method for the isolation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal (hUCM) cells. In the present study, we compared four methods for the isolation of hUCM cells: three enzymatic methods; collagenase/hyaluronidase/trypsin (CHT), collagenase/trypsin (CT) and trypsin (Trp), and an explant culture (Exp) method. The trypan blue dye exclusion test, the water-soluble tetrazolium salt-1 (WST-1) assay, flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase activity and histochemical staining were used to evaluate the results of the different methods. The hUCM cells were successfully isolated by all methods but the isolation method used profoundly altered the cell number and proliferation capacity of the isolated cells. The cells were successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages and alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in the hUCM cell colonies of all groups. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 were expressed in all groups, while CD34 and CD45 were not expressed. The expression of C-kit in the enzymatic groups was higher than in the explant group, while the expression of Oct-4 was higher in the CT group compared to the other groups. We concluded that the collagenase/trypsin method of cell isolation yields a higher cell density than the others. These cells expressed a higher rate of pluripotent cell markers such as C-kit and Oct-4, while the explant method of cell isolation resulted in a higher cell proliferation rate and activity compared to the other methods.
Crude extracts (methanol) of various parts, viz. the leaves, fruits, roots, stem and trunk bark, of Garcinia atroviridis were screened for antimicrobial, cytotoxic, brine shrimp toxic, antitumour-promoting and antioxidant activities. The crude extracts exhibited predominantly antibacterial activity with the root extract showing the strongest inhibition against the test bacteria at a minimum inhibitory dose (MID) of 15.6 microg/disc. Although all the extracts failed to inhibit the growth of most of the test fungi, significant antifungal activity against Cladosporium herbarum was exhibited by most notably the fruit (MID: 100 microg), and the leaf (MID: 400 microg) extracts. None of the extracts were significantly cytotoxic, and lethal towards brine shrimps. The root, leaf, trunk and stem bark extracts (except for the fruits) showed strong antioxidant activity exceeding that of the standard antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. Antitumour-promoting activity (>95% inhibition) was shown by the fruit, leaf, stem and trunk bark extracts.
Marketing's role in supporting a company's efforts to develop pioneering and incremental products can be quite different. Abdul Ali examines published articles and offers a set of propositions to show how several factors influence the product development decision. He cites examples from the business world to illustrate these propositions. This article suggests that a firm should take into account several factors relating to its capabilities, along with various project and market characteristics, in order to decide what products it should develop.
New bidentate isomeric NS and NS′ Schiff bases were derived from the condensation of Sbenzyldithiocarbazate (SBDTC) with 5-methyl-2-furyldehyde and 2-furyl-methylketone. Reaction of NS ligand with Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) salts gave solid complexes. Only the Ni(II) complex of the NS′ ligand was isolated. All complexes were characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques, viz. elemental analyses, molar conductivity, i.r. and electronic spectral studies. The Schiff bases behaved as uninegatively charged bidentate ligands. Square-planar structures have been proposed for the Cu(II) complex containing the NS Schiff base ligand and the Ni(II) complexes of the bidentate NS and NS′ Schiff base ligands. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study of [Cd(NS)2] showed that the complex was bis chelated with a distorted tetrahedral structure. The antimicrobial properties of the Schiff bases and their metal complexes indicate that the organic compounds are stronger antifungal agents than their complexes with the metals studied. However, the zinc complex of the Schiff base, S-benzyl-β-N-(5-methyl-2-furyl)methylenedithiocarbazate, (NS), was found to be highly active against CEM-SS (Human cell T-lymphoblastic leukemia) with a CD50 value of 2.0 μg cm−3, while [Cd(NS)2] was moderately active with a CD50 value of 4.95 μg cm−3. None of the compounds were found to be active against HT-29 (Human colon adenocarcinoma cells). The bioactivity of a previously reported tridentate NNS Schiff base (SBD1) and its metal complexes with nickel(II) and copper(II) are also discussed.
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