Introduction: The rate of secondary attacks of SARS-COV-2 is high among household close contacts. Social distancing, isolation and infection control measures are important for preventing exposure to infection, but insufficient. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate possible role of oral ivermectin as a chemoprophylaxis in asymptomatic family close contacts with COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective interventional randomised open label-controlled study was conducted (registered at clinicaltrials.gov; NCT04422561) during June and July 2020. Two arms were designed according to use of ivermectin. In ivermectin arm, contacts received ivermectin according to Body Weight (BW) on day of the diagnosis of their index case. The non-intervention group received no treatment. Both groups were followed-up for two weeks for development of symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. Results: Ivermectin group included 203 contacts (to 52 index cases) aged 39.75±14.94 years; 52.2% were males. Non-intervention group included 101 contacts (to a total of 24 index cases) aged 37.69±16.96 years, 49.5% were males. Fifteen contacts (7.4%) developed COVID-19 in the ivermectin arm compared to 59 (58.4%) in the non-intervention arm (p<0.001). The protection rate for ivermectin was more prominent in contacts aged less than 60-year-old (6.2% infected compared to 58.7% if no treatment). Ivermectin in the protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection had an OR of 12.533 and 11.445 (compared to nontreatment) in both univariate and multivariate models, respectively. Side effects of ivermectin were reported in 5.4%; they were mild. Conclusion: Ivermectin is suggested to be a promising, effective and safe chemoprophylactic drug in management of COVID-19.
Umbilicus is considered a mirror of the abdomen in newborns. Despite its importance, the umbilicus has been stated in literature and textbooks as discrete subjects with many body systems, such as the urinary, digestive, and cardiovascular ones. This article aimed to address the basic knowledge of the umbilicus in relation to clinical disorders under one integrated topic to aid physicians and surgeons in assessing newborns and infants. The umbilicus appears as early as the fourth week of fetal life when the folding of the embryonic plate occurs. The umbilicus appears initially as a primitive umbilical ring on the ventral aspect of the body. The primitive umbilicus contains the connecting stalk, umbilical vessels, vitelline duct and vessels, allantois, and loop of the intestine. Changes occur to form the definitive cord, which contains three umbilical vessels, namely, "one vein and two arteries," embedded in Wharton's jelly. After birth, the umbilical vessels inside the body obliterate and gradually form ligaments. Congenital disorders at the umbilicus include herniation, bleeding, and discharge of mucous, urine, or feces. Some of these disorders necessitate emergent surgical interference, whereas others may be managed conservatively. The umbilicus has many embryological remnants. Thus, the umbilicus is prone to various clinical disorders. Detecting these disorders as early as possible is essential to prevent or minimize possible complications.
Objective: tumor stem cells have been found in a variety of neoplasms and stated to have a role in tumor progression. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of biomarkers which are said to be related to these cells, i.e., EZH2, ALDH1 and Ki-67, and their correlation with each other in astrocytic gliomas. Material and Method:Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 40 patients with astrocytic glioma who underwent initial surgery during the period from December 2011 to May 2014 at Zagazig University Hospitals were enrolled in the study. Consecutive 4-μm thick sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological evaluation. immunohistochemical analysis using ALDH1, EZH2 and Ki-67 antibodies were performed to examine the cases.Results: A total of forty patients; 22 males and 18 females were studied. The lesions were classified as follows: 14 cases of low-grade astrocytoma (WHO grade i or ii), 11 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade iii), and 15 glioblastomas (WHO grade iV). There was a significant increase in ALDH1 immunoreactivity with increasing the grade of astrocytoma (mean ±SD = 0.2 ±0.4, 0.5 ±0.6, 1.1 ±1.3 and 2.95 ±2.97 in grade i to iV astrocytic gliomas, respectively). This expression was significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (pFS) (p=0.004). EZH2 expression was also significantly associated with advanced grades (mean ±SD =1.35 ±0.4, 3.1 ±2.6, 7.2 ±3.5 and 9.9 ±4.1, in grade i to iV astrocytic gliomas, respectively). EZH2 and Ki-67 expressions were found to be correlated with OS and pFS (p < 0.001).Conclusion: increased expression of ALDH1, EZH2 and Ki67 are found to be associated with unfavourable prognosis in patients with astrocytic gliomas and may predict therapeutic modalities.
Despite the increasing recognition of the functional and clinical importance of lumbar lordosis, little is known about its description, particularly in Egypt. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been introduced as a noninvasive diagnostic technique. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis using midsagittal MRIs. Normal lumbar spine MRIs obtained from 93 individuals (46 males, 47 females; 25–57 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The lumbar spine curvature and its segments “vertebrae and discs” were described and measured. The lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) was larger in females than in males. Its mean values increased by age. The lumbar height (LH) was longer in males than in females. At the same time, the lumbar breadth (LB) was higher in females than in males. Lumbar index (LI = LB/LH × 100) showed significant gender differences (P < 0.0001). Lordosis was formed by wedging of intervertebral discs and bodies of lower lumbar vertebrae. In conclusion, MRI might clearly reveal the anatomy of the lumbar lordosis. Use of LI in association with LLA could be useful in evaluation of lumbar lordosis.
Nowadays, the coronavirus epidemic represents a major threat to the human being, represented by great numbers of deaths and wide world life disrupt. COVID-19 virus, is not only representing a threat to the life of human being, but also to the economic activities that nearly stopped in many countries due to the partial to complete closure of life activities in order to control the wide spread of virus infections. In these extraordinary and unprecedented critical times of human being life, it is essential to review and discus the virus epidemic in trial to suggest an idea that might be beneficial to researchers to find out an exit from this dark tunnel and to prevent as possible epidemic recurrence. Many attempts of management protocols and trials all over the world, nearly failed until now to control the wide spread and the high incidence of morbidity and mortality of this viral infection. In this review, we highlight the virology and pathogenesis of epidemic and possible used therapeutics in a simplified and concise form to be easily understood and available for healthcare members and even general population. This might help in control and eradication of the current epidemic.
Background: Oral ingestion of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) may lead to serious liver injury. Vitamin E (VE) is an important antioxidant factor that can reduce such damage. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the possible changes that could take place in the liver of adult male albino rats after oral ingestion of ZnONPs and elucidate the potential protective role of VE against such damage. Material and Methods: Forty eight male albino rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Group (1) served as control group and received normal saline. Group (2) “VE-treated” received 100 mg/kg/day of VE dissolved in normal saline by oral gavage for 21 days. Group (3) “ZnONPs-treated” received a daily dose of ZnONPs dispersed in the fresh sterilized physiological saline solution 1mg/kg for 5 constitutive days. Group (4) “concomitant ZnONPs and VE-treated” was pretreated with VE 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days followed by the same dose of ZnONPs as in group (3) for 5 days. The extent of hepatic damage was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical examination of liver samples and serological analysis of liver enzymes. Results: Body weights and liver weights showed very highly significant decrease (P <0.001) in the ZnONPs-treated group. The histological results in ZnONPs-treated group revealed congested dilated central veins and blood sinusoids, loss of normal arrangement of hepatocytes and most of hepatocytes showed marked vacuolated cytoplasm with darkly stained nuclei. Portal area affection was in the form of congested dilated portal veins with bile duct hyperplasia and cellular infiltration. There was an increase in the mount of blue stained collagen fibers around central veins together with strong positive reaction for Caspase 3 in ZnONPs-treated group. Similarly biochemical analysis indicated that the levels of serum aminotransferase (AST &ALT) significantly increased in ZnONPs-treated group when compared with other groups. Rats pretreated with VE showed improvement of the histological findings and biochemical parameters. Conclusion: Ingestion of ZnONPs could be associated with serious liver affection and pretreatment with VE is suggested to induce some improvement of such deleterious changes.
ObjectiveTo investigate whether the immunohistochemical expression of p53, p63 and her2/neu is correlated with the prognosis of tumour recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle invasive (NMI) bladder cancer.Patients and methodsIn all, 88 patients diagnosed with NMI transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in a Urology Department from May 2009 to April 2014 were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained by transurethral resection of the bladder tumours. Sections on haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were examined histologically and tumour grade was classified according to the World Health Organisation system (2004) Mostofi classification. The sections were evaluated using p63, p53 and her2/neu immunohistochemical staining before and after immunotherapy with bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG), and patients were followed up for 36 months in the Urology Department.ResultsFor tumour grade there was a significant relationship with the overexpression of p53 (P = 0.010), her2 (P = 0.025) and negativity of p63 (P = 0.025). There was no significant relationship between p53 or her2/neu overexpression and tumour stage. However, there was a significant correlation (P = 0.005) between p63 negativity and tumour stage. There was a significant relationship between p53 (P = 0.01), her2/neu (P = 0.025) overexpression and p63 negativity (P = 0.005) and tumour recurrence and progression.ConclusionPatients with transitional cell carcinoma who are selected for BCG treatment should preferably be positively immunoreactive for p63, but negative for both p53 and her2/neu. These patients were less susceptible to recurrence and/or progression after BCG adjuvant therapy. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between these three markers and treatment with anti-her2/neu therapies.
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