a b s t r a c tSupercritical fluid extraction (SFE) offers an alternative method to conventional extraction of fatty acids. SFE was developed for analytical application in the mid-1980s in response to the desire to reduce the use of organic solvents in the laboratory environment, and it is now becoming a standard method for the extraction, fractionation, refinement and deodorization of lipids or essential oils containing sample matrices at the industrial scale. This paper reviews applications of supercritical fluid technology in fatty acid/lipid extraction using carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is an ideal supercritical fluid because of its environmentally benign, non-toxic, non-flammable, non-polluting, recoverable characteristics and its ability to solubilise lipophilic substances. A summary of commercial applications and examples of recent developments of SFE in the food processing industry are also reviewed.
The current concern for cocoa butter fat as major ingredients of chocolate intake in the World has raised the question of the high price of cocoa butter among all other vegetable fats. Productions of natural cocoa butter fats are decreasing day by day due to the decrease of cocoa cultivation worldwide; moreover, cocoa fruit contains only a little amount of cocoa butter. Therefore, the food industries are keen to find the alternatives to cocoa butter fat and this issue has been contemplated among food manufacturers. This review offers an update of scientific research conducted in relation to the alternative fats of cocoa butter from natural sources. The findings highlights how these cocoa butter alternatives are being produced either by blending, modifying the natural oils or fats from palm oil, palm kernel oil, mango seed kernel fats, kokum butter fat, sal fat, shea butter, and illipé fat.
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